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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Individual Differences
Individuals are similar, but they are also unique, The study of individual differences such as attitudes, perceptions, and abilities helps a manager explain differences in performance levels.
Ability
A biological or learned trait that permits a person to do something mental or physical.
Skills
Task-related competencies.
Job Analysis
Process of defining and studying a job in terms of behavior and specifying education and training needed to perform the job.
Diversity
Describes human qualities such as race, gender, and ethnicity that are different from our own and that are outside the groups to which we belong.
Perception
The process by which an individual gives meaning to the environment. It involves organizing and interpreting various stimuli into a psychological experience.
Stereotype
An overgeneralized, oversimplified, and self-perpetuating belief about people's personal characteristics.
Attribution
The process of perceiving the causes of behavior and outcomes.
Dispositional attributions
Emphasize some aspect of the individual, such as ability or skill, to explain behavior.
Situational attributions
Attributions that emphasize the environment's effect on behavior.
Attitudes
Mental states of readiness for need arousal.
Affect
The emotional segment of an attitude.
Cognition
The perception, opinion, or belief segment of an attitude.
Behavior
The behavior segment of an attitude.
Cognitive Dissonance
A mental state of anxiety that occurs when there's a conflict among an individual's various cognitions (e.g., attitudes and beliefs) after a decision has been made.
Values
The conscious, affective desires or wants of people that guide their behavior.
Job satisfaction
The attitude that workers have about their jobs. It results from their perception of their job.
Personality
A stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine commonalities and differences in people's behavior
Trait Personality Theories
Theories based on the premised that predispositions direct the behavior of an individual in a consistent pattern.
Psychodynamic Personality Theories
Freudian apprach that discusses the id, superego, and ego, Special emphasis is placed on unconscious determinants of behavior.
Humanistic personality theories
Place emphasis on growth an self-actualization of people.
Personality test
Test used to measure emotional, motivational, interpersonal, and attitude characteristics that make up a person's personality.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
A widely used survey for assessing personality.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
A scaled that assesses personality or cognitive style. Respondents' answers are scored and interpreted to classify them as extroverted or introvert, sensory or intuitive, thinking or feeling, and perceiving or judging. Sixteen different personality types are possible.
Locus of Control
A personality characteristic that describes people who see the control of their lives as coming from inside themselves as internalizers. People who believe that their lives are controlled by external factors are externalizers.
Self-efficacy
The belief that one can perform adequately in a situation. Self-efficacy has three dimensions: magnitude, strength and generality.
Machiavellianism
A term used to describe political maneuvers in an organization. Used to designate a person as a manipulator.
Psychological contract
An implied understanding of mutual contributions between a person and his or her organization.
Psychological contract violation
The perception of the person that his or her firm has failed to fulfill or has reneged on one or more obligations.