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36 Cards in this Set

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Continuum of Perfection

Single, graduated continuum from more perfection to less perfection.




- Radiance given first to humans and then with each subsequent creation some of that radiance was lost




- Aristotle and Plato





The Chain of Being

Chain from God to the beasts, linked together without a break.




- Microbus summarizing the work of Plotinus




- Plant and animal species couldn't go extinct because this threatened people's trust in God

System Naturae

Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)




- suggested all species were created by God and fixed in their forms


- Anti-Evolutionist




Classified plants and animals: Kingdom,


Phylum, Class, Family, Order, Genus, Species

Jean Baptise Lamarck (1744-1829)

Believed acquired characteristics could be inherited




(Ex. Giraffes stretching necks and passing this onto young - incorrect)

Stupid giraffe man

Georges Cuivier (1769-1832)

Leading opponent of evolution




- Catastrophism: quick series of catastrophes killed off living creatures. God then replaced them by new creations

James Hutton (1726-1797)

Questioned Catastrophism but was ignored

Sir Charles Lyell (1797- 1875)

Uniformitarianism: suggested that the Earth is constantly being shaped and reshaped by natural forces that have operated over a vast stretch of time




- based on Hutton's work

Charles Darwin (1809- 1882)

Believed in evolution of species through natural selection

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913)



- came to the same conclusion as Darwin


- presented work together with Darwin





The ignored Darwin

Natural Selection

The outcome of processes that affect the


frequency of traits in an environment.




Traits that enhance survival and environmental success increase in frequency over time

Adaptive or Advantageous Traits

Result in greater reproductive success in a particular environment

Maladaptive or Disadvantageous Traits

Generally decline in frequency or disappear


altogether

Punctuated Equilibrium

Replacement from outside. A quick instance of change



Does Natural Selection account for all variation in the frequency of traits?

No, does not account for:


- frequencies of neutral traits (no advantages or disadvantages)

Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)

Pea Plant experimenting monk



Mitosis

duplication of somatic cells

Mitosis has a "t" and so does


somatic (just call gametes sex cells and there's no "t")

Meiosis

Reproductive cells (gametes) are formed - the number of chromosomes is halved

Sex doesn't have a "t" and


neither does Meiosis

DNA

- Deoxyribonucleic acid


- double helix shape (Watson + Crick - 1953)


- directs the makeup and organization according to the instructions in its genetic code




A-T G-C

Human Genome Project

Assemble a complete genetic map for humans.Completed early 2000's

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

used to copt the DNA code for protein synthesis




A-U G-C

Protein Synthesis

mRNA connects to Ribosome




Ribosome reads the mRNA and combines the specific amino acids to form a protein

Sources of Variability

1. Genetic Recombination


- Segregation: random sorting of chromosomes in meiosis


- Crossing Over: exchange of sections of one chromosome and another

Mutation

change in the DNA sequence that produces an altered gene




only source of new alleles in a species

Hybridization

creation of viable offspring from two different species

Species

a population that consists of organisms able to interbreed and produce fertile and viable offspring

Speciation

development of a new species

Factors that Prevent the Exchange of Genes

1. Breeding at different times of year


2. Different courtship rituals


3. Difference in body structure


4. geographic barriers

Creationism

God created all living things and evolution has only changed them in minor ways and has not created new living things

Intelligent Design

if we find a complex mechanism at work in the world, we assume it had a maker.

Sociobiology / Behavioural Ecology

Study of how behaviour may be related to the environment.




Application of biological evolutionary principles to behaviour (Behavioural Ecology)


or


social organization and behaviour (Sociobiology)

Evolutionary Psychology

studies how evolution make have produced lasting variation in the way humans behave,


interact, and perceive the world

Where does variation come from in cultural


evolution?

- Recombination of learned behaviours


- Invention


- Borrowed ideas or behaviours from another culture

Cultural Transmission

how culture is passed on through learning from one generation to another. Also referred to as enculturation or socialization.

Coevolution

Interaction between genes and culture




- Robert Boyd and Peter Richerson

What is the problem with Classification of


human diversity?

whichever units of classification are used (geographic, ethnic, physical traits) people are dynamic entities and breeding populations change over time and space

Why is the concept of biological race rejected?

- Races are no more than cultural constructions based on arbitrary characteristics


- Biological characteristics are not linked with abilities or behaviours


- There are no "pure" races because humans have interbred with others during their history and are constantly changing