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65 Cards in this Set

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5 Types of Blood Vessels
1. Arteries
2. Arterioles
3. Capillaries
4. Venules
5. Veins
Function of Arteries
Carries blood away from the heart to the organs
Smaller arteries from division of larger ones
Tiny Arterioles that have entered the tissue
The are reunited capillaries that receive unoxygenated blood
Merged venules that carry blood from tissues back to the heart
3 Layers of a Blood Vessel
1. Tunica Interns
2. Tunica Media
3. Tunica Externa
Layer closest to the Lumen that has direct contact with blood
Tunica Interna
What tissue makes up the Tunica Interna?
Endothelium & Elastic Fibers
This Layer is known as the muscle of the artery. Its primary smooth muscle layer causes vasoconstriction and vasodilation of the artery.
Tunica Media
This is the protective layer of the artery
Tunica Externa
What tissue makes up the Tunica Media?
Smooth Muscle Cells & Elastic Fibers
What tissue makes up the Tunica Externa?
Elastic Fibers & Callogen Fibers
When an artery or arteriole is damaged it contracts to help limit blood loss
Vascular Spasm
2 Functional Properties of Arteries
1. Elastic
2. Muscular
These are the largest arteries and they are known as conducting arteries
Elastic Arteries
These function as blood reservoirs
Elastic Arteries
This is known for the way blood is pulsed through the body. Does so by the stored (potential) energy being converted into Kinetic energy so that blood can move through arteries even if the ventricles are relaxed
Pressure Reservoir
These arteries have more smooth muscle and they distribute blood to the various parts of the body
Muscular Arteries
These abundant microscopic vessels regulate flow of blood into capillaries
These are also microscopic and they connect arterioles to venules. Attached to every cell in the body. Their walls are only one cell thick
What are Capillaries also known as? Why?
Exchange Vessels because they function in the exchange of substances between blood and interstitial fluid
What are the walls of capillaries composed of?
Endothelium and a Basement Membrane
Continuous tubes found in the brain, lungs, skeletal and smooth muscles, and connective tissues. Primarily feeds parts of the body that deals with movement.
Continuous Capillaries
These have small pores and are found in the kidneys, small intestines, choroid plexuses, ventricles of the brain, ciliary process of the eye and endocrine glands
Fenestrated Capillaries
These are wide and winding capillaries found in the liver, spleen, anterior pituitary, and the parathyroids
Sinusoid Capillaries
3 Types of Capillaries
1. Continuous Capillaries
2. Fenestrated Capillaries
3. Sinusoids
Main difference between veins and arteries
The union of two or more arteries that supply the same body region
An alternate route of blood flow to a body part through an anastomosis
Collateral Circulation
Arteries that don't form an anastomosis
End Arteries
Largest portion of blood is where? and what is this known as?
Systemic Veins and Venules
A.K.A. Blood Reservoir
3 Types Ways of Capillary Exchange
1. Diffusion
2. Transytosis
3. Bulk Flow
Most important method a substance/substances enter and leave capillaries
2 Things that Regulate movement of water and solutes
Blood Hydrostatic Pressure
Blood Osmotic Pressure
2 Things blood flow depends on
Blood Pressure
Systemic Vascular Resistance
Blood flows from regions of _____________ ___________ to regions of ______________ ______________
Higher Pressure & Lower Pressure
4 Factors that affect blood pressure and blood flow
1. Cardiac Output
2. Blood Viscosity
3. Resistance
4. Elasticity of the artery
Higher the _____________ the higher the _____________
Viscosity, Resistance
5 Things that increase Blood Pressure
1. Increased Blood Volume
2. Increased Heart Rate
3. Increased Stroke Volume
4. Increased Sympathetic Stimulation
5. Systemic Vascular Resistance
This is located in the Medulla Oblongata and controls blood pressure and blood flow. Does so by regulating heart rate, contractility, and blood vessel diameter
Cardiovascular Center
3 Receptors that provide input to the Cardiovascular Center
4 Hormones that affect Blood Pressure and Blood Flow
Renin - Angiotensin - Aldosterone = (RAA) System
Epinephrine & Norepinehrine
Antidiuretic Hormone
Atrial Natiuretic Peptide
The alternate expansion and recoil of elastic arteries.
What is the most common artery used to check for a pulse?
Radial Artery
A rapid resting heart or pulse rate over 100 beats/min
A slow resting heart or pulse rate under 50 beats/ min.
The force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction
Systolic Blood Pressure
The force exerted by the blood remaining in arteries during ventricular relaxation
Diastolic Blood Pressure
This is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
Pulse Pressure
Conditions that affect pulse pressure by greatly increasing it
Patent Ductus Arteriosis
4 Types of Shock
1. Hypovolemic Shock
2. Cardiogenic Shock
3. Vascular Shock
4. Obstructive Shock
This is due to rapid sudden hemorrhage, or severe loss of body fluids
Hypovolemic Shock
This is caused when the heart fails to pump adequately. Most often seen in Myocardial Infarctions
Cardiogenic Shock
Due to blockage of blood flow
Obstructive Shock
Most common cause is pulmonary embolism
Occurs due to a decrease in vascular resistance
Vascular Shock
common types are:
Anaphylactic Shock
Neurogenic Shock
4 Homeostatic Responses to Hypovolemic Shock
1. Activation of RAA System
2. Secretion of ADH
3. Activation of sympathetic division of ANS
4. Release of Local Vasodilators
Signs And Symptoms of Shock
* Cool, Clammy, Pale skin
* Weak rapid pulse
* Tachycardia
* Sweating
* Hypertension
* Decreased urinary output
* Thirst
* Acidosis
* Altered mental state
4 Circulatory Routes
1. Systemic Circulation
2. Pulmonary Circulation
3. Hepatic Portal Circulation
4. Fetal Circulation
Refers to all arteriole flow to the body
Systemic Circulation
Refers to all arteriole flow to the lungs
Pulmonary Circulation
Refers to arterial flow around the liver to detoxify
Hepatic Portal Circulation
Allows for the exchange of material between a developing fetus and its mother
Fetal Circulation
2 Areas blood flows before going back to the heart
1. Superior and Inferior Vena Cava
2. Coronary Sinus
5 Changes that occur after birth
1. Umbilical Arteries -> Medial umbilical ligaments
2. Umbilical Veins -> Ligamentum teres
3. Dustus Venosus -> Ligamentum Venosum
4. Foramen Ovale closes -> Fossa ovalis
5. Ductus arteriosis closes -> Ligamentum arteriosum