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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
almost constantly plagued by exaggerated worries
panic disorder (PD)
have frequent periods of anxiety and occasional attacks of panic- rapid breathing, increased heart rate, chest pains, sweating, faintness, and trembling
rapid deep breathing
social phobia
a severe aviodance of other people and a fear of doing anything in public
an excessive fear of open or public places
an extreme, persistent fear that interferes with normal living
systematic desensitization
a method of reducing fear by gradually exposing people to the object of their fear
flooding (implosion or intensive exposure therapy)
a treatment that exposes the person to the object of the phobia suddenly rather than gradually
obsessive-compulsive disorder
a repetitive, unwelcome stream of thought leading to a repetitive, almost irresistible action
addiction (dependence)
finding it difficult to or impossible to quit a self-destructive habit
nucleus accumbens
apparently critical for attention and habit formation; nearly all the drugs that commonly produce addictions stimulate dopamine receptors to this small brain area
physical dependence
uses a drug to reduce unpleasant withdrawal symptoms
psychological dependence
strong, repetitive desire for something without physical symptoms of withdrawal
the habitual overuse of alcohol
Type I alcoholism
develops gradually over the years, affects about as many women as men, is generally less severe, and depends more on life experiences than genetics
Type II Alcoholism
develops rapidly, usually by age 25, is much more common in men than women, is usually more severe, and shows a stronger genetic basis
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
a self help group of people who are trying to abstain from alcohol use and help others do the same
harm reduction
an appproach that concentrates on decreasing the frequency of drug use and minimizing the harmful consequences to health and well-being
major depression
a more extreme condition, persisting most of each day for at least two weeks, usually more, while the person experiences little interest, pleasure, motivation, or activity
seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression with a seasonal pattern
people repeatedly become depressed during a particular season of the year
bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder)
someone alternates between periods of depression and periods of mania, which are opposite extremes
explanatory style
a tendency to accept one kind of explanation for success or failure more often than others
interpersonal therapy
focuses on improving interpersonal relationships and on coping with difficulties someone has faced in the present or recent past, such as death of a loved one, divorce, unemployment, and lack of social skills
Tricyclic drugs (imipramine) (Tofranil)
blocks the reabsorption of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin after they are released by an axon's terminal
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (fluoxetine) (Prozac)
block the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (phenielzine) (Nardil)
blocks the metabolic breakdown of released dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin
atypical antidepressants
they are about as effective, on the average, as other antidepressants and produce milder side effects
St. John's wort
an herb with antidepressant effects
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a brief electrical shock is administered across the patient's head to induce a convulsion similar to epilepsy
the opposite of depression
bipolar I disorder
have at least one episode of mania
bipolar II disorder
have had episodes of major depression and hypomania, which a milder degree of mania
arachidonic acid
produced mostly during times of brain inflammation
someone must exhibit a deterioration of daily activities, including work , social relations, and self-care. He or she must also exhibit at least two of the following: hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized behavior, or a loss of normal emotional responses and social behaviors
positive symptoms
behaviors that are notable by their presence, such as hallucinations and delusions
negative symptoms
behaviors notable for their absence, including a lack of speech and emotional expression, a lack of ability to feel pleasure, and a general inability to take care of oneself
perceptions that do not correspond to anything in the objective world
unfounded beliefs that are strongly held despite a lack of evidence for them
delusion of grandeur
a belief that you are unusually important
delusion of reference
a tendency to interpret all sorts of messages as if they were meant for oneself
neurodevelopmental hypothesis
schizophrenia originates with nervous system impairments that develop before or around the time of birth, for either genetic or other reasons
season-of-birth effect
a person born in the winter or early spring is slightly more likely to develop schizophrenia than a person born at other times
antipsychotic drug
that is, a drug that can relieve shcizophrenia
dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia
the underlying cause of schizophrenia is excessive stimulation of certain types of dopamine synapses
tardive dyskinesia
a condition characterized by tremors and involuntary movements
atypical antipsychotic drugs
relieve schizophrenia without causing tardive dyskinesia
expressed emotion
hostile or critical comments