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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
all the consistent ways in which the behavior of one person differs from that of others, especially in social situations
psychodynamic theory
relates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual, including unconscious ones
release of pent-up emotional tension
his method of explaining and dealing with personality, based on the interplay of conscious and unconscious forces
the repository of memories, emotions and thoughts, many of them illogical, that effect our behavior even though we cannot talk about them
Oedipus complex
when he develops a sexual interest in his mother and competitive aggression toward his father
psychosexual pleasure
all strong, pleasant excitement arising from body stimulation
libido (means "desire")
psychosexual energy
continues to be preoccupied with the pleasure area associated with that stage
oral stage
infant derives intense psychosexual pleasure from stimulation of the mouth, particularly sucking at the mother's breast
anal stage
they get psychosexual pleasure from the sensations of bowe movements
phallic stage
children begin to play with their genitals
latent period
they suppress their psychosexual interest
genital stage
young people take a strong sexual interest in other people
consists of all our biological drives, such as sex and hunger, that demand immediate gratification
rational, decision-making aspect of the personality
contains memory of rules and prohibitions we learned from out parent and the rest of society
defense mechanisms
the ego defends itself against conflicts and anxieties by relegating unpleasant thoughts and impulses to the unconscious
motivated forgetting
refusal to believe information that provokes anxiety
attempt to prove that their actions are rational and justifiable and thus worthy of approval
diverting a behavior or thought away from its natural target toward a less threatening target
return to a more immature level of functioning
attribution of one's own undesirable characteristics to other people's
reaction formation
present themselves as the opposite of what they really are to hide the unpleasant truth either from themselves or others
transformation of sexual or aggressive energies into culturally acceptable, even admirable, behaviors
remained faithful to parts of Freud's theory while modifying other parts
collective unconscious
present at birth, represents the cumulative experience of preceding generations
vague images that we inherited from the experiences of our ancestors
individual psychology
indivisible psychology and psychology of the person as a whole rather than a psychology of parts
inferiority complex
exaggerated feeling of weakness, inadequacy and helplessness
striving for superiority
desire to seek personal excellence and fulfillment
style of life
master plan for achieving a sense of superiority
social interest
sense of solidarity and identification with other people
gender role
pattern of behavior that a person is expected to follow because of being male or female
humanistic psychology
deals with consciousness, values, and abstract beliefs, including spiritual experiences and the beliefs that people like and die for
achievement of one's full potential
image of what they really are
ideal self
an image of what they would like to be
unconditional positive regard
the complete, unqualified acceptance of another person as he or she is
conditional positive regard
the attitude that "I shall like you only if..."
fulfillment of an individual's potential
nomothetic approach
seeks general laws about various aspects of personality
tendency to seek stimulation and to enjoy the company of other people; the more likely that person will introduce him/herself to a stranger
idiographic approach
intensive studies of indivuals
consistent, long-lasting tendency in behavior, such as shyness
temporary activation of a particular behavior
trait approach to personality
people have consistent characteristics in their behavior
belief in a just world
maintain that life is fair and people usually get what they deserve
big five personality traits
neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to new experience
tendency to experience unpleasant emotions frequently
emotionaol stability
the mirror image of neuroticism
tendency to show self-discipline, to be dutiful and to strive for achievement and competence
avoidance, anxiety proneness
unshared environment
aspects of environment that differ from 1 individual to another, even within a family
Barnum effect
tendency to accept vague descriptions of our personality
standardized test
one that is administered according to rules that specify how to interpret the results
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
true-false questions intended to measure certain personality dimensions and clinical conditions such as depression, 550 items
- the second edition has 567 items
based on evidence rather than theory
projective techniques
designed to encourage people to project their personality characteristics onto ambiguous stimuli
Rorschach Inkblots
projective technique based on people's interpretations of 10 ambiguous inkblots
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
person is asked to make up a story for each picture, describing what events led up to this scene, what is happening now and what will happen in the future