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38 Cards in this Set

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Layers that surround the brain and spinal cord, provide protection.

Name 3 layers of meninges

Dura, arachnoid and pia

Epidural space

A fatty layer only found in spinal cord.

Subarachnoid space

A sub layer of arachnoid space, CSF circulates here.

Dura mater have 3 extensions, name them and their purpose.

Flax cerebri, separate cerebral hemispheres.

Flax cerebrelli, separate hemispheres or cerebrum.

Tentorium cerebelli, separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.


Blood brain barrier, function protection. Tight junctions that seal blood capillaries, Epithelial cells and the thick basement membrane that surrounds them.

Proteins and antibiotics can't pass, oxygen, carbon dioxide, alcohol and anesthetic can.


Cerebral spinal fluid, composed mostly of water, protects the brain and spinal cord. Carries Glucose and o2, continuously flows and reabsorbes.

Circulates around the ventricles and subarachnoid space.

Name ventricles

Lateral ventricals there are 2, 3rd ventricle, 4th ventricle.

Flow of CSF

Lateral ventricle through septum pellucidium to 3rd ventricle, down cerebral aqueduct to 4th ventricle. Central canal of spinal cord, and throughout Subarachnoid spaces.

Name 4 functions of CSF

1. Shock absorber

2. Buffer

3. Hormone transport

4. Minor exchange of nutrients and waste.

Mechanical protection, homeostatic functions, circulation.

CSF is produced by

Choroid plexus, continually produce CSF.

Barrier that protects brain from infections.

Blood Cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Tight junctions that do not allow bacteria, virus or fungus from blood to cross into CSF.


A block or build up of CSF, can cause retardation And death. Young children compensate by bulging fontanelle and foreheads.

Medulla oblongata

Continuous with spinal cord, cardiovascular center, regulates heart rate and vessel diameter, also controls reflexes like coughing, swallowing, sneezing, vomiting and yawning.


Superior to medulla anterior to cerebellum. Acts as a bridge connecting parts of the brain. Plays a role in coordination of voluntary skeletal muscle movements. Pontine respiratory group, control breathing with medullary respiratory group.


Extends from Pons to diencephalon. Aqueduct of midbrain passes through. Contacts 3rd ventricle with 4th ventricle. Midbrain has both nuclei and tracts.

Cerebral peduncles

Conduct nerve impulses from motor areas of cerebral cortex to the pons,medulla and spinal cord. Within midbrain

Super colliculi and inferior colliculi.

Superior, reflex centers for visual activities, generates movements of head,eyes, and trunk.

Inferior, part of auditory pathways, relays impulses from hearing receptors in the inner ear of brain. Within midbrain.

Reticular formation

Regions of gray and white matter with net like patterns. From spinal cord through the brain stem and into the diencephalon. Has both ascending sensory and descending motor funtions.

RAS reticular activating system.

Consciousness, mental activities and attention. When damaged causes coma.

Cerebellum primary funtion

Evaluates movement's initiated by motor area of cerebrum, uses feedback systems, regulates posture and balance.

Name 4parts of the diencephalon.




Pituitary gland


Biggest portion of diencephalon, acts as a major relay center for sensory impulse, except smell.


Smallest portion, major regulator of homeostasis. Vision,taste and smell. Monitors osmotic pressure, glucose, hormone concentrations and blood temperature. Connects to Pituitary gland.

Important functions of the hypothalamus?

1.Control of ANS, parasympathetic and sympathetic systems.

2.Regulates smooth and cardiac muscle contractions.

3.Produces hormones inhibits or stimulates Pituitary gland.

4.regulates,eating, drinking,sleeping and emotion and behavior.

5.controls body temperature and circadian rhythm.


Contains the pineal gland that secretes melatonin. Also contains the habenular nuclei involved in olfaction, emotional response to smell.

Cerebrum consists of?

Outer cerebral cortex, internal white and gray matter. Allows for reading, writing and speaking.

Cerebral cortex

Forms the outer rim of the cerebrum and is the region of gray matter .


Folds of gray matter, cerebral cortex of cerebrum.


Deepest grooves of cerebral cortex.


Shallow folds of gray matter of cerebral cortex, of cerebrum.

Longitudinal fissure

Separates the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres.

2 half's of cerebrum and function.

Left hemisphere, controls right side of body, helps with math,analytical and speech skills.

Right hemisphere, controls left side of body,helps with music,art and abstract ideas.

Corpus callosum

Connects the cerebrum hemispheres internally a broad band of white matter between the two hemispheres.

Lobes of the cerebrum

parietal lobe evaluate sensory information like touch pressure pain temperature and taste.

Frontal lobe controls voluntary motor functions evaluate future control of mood and aggression.

Temporal lobe roll in long term memory is hearing speech and smell.

Occipital lobe vision.

Basal nuclei

Gray matter masses within each cerebral hemisphere. Receives input from cortex and output from motor areas of cortex.

Controls subconscious skeletal muscle contractions.

Limbic system

emotional brain, has a primary role in pain pleasure affection and anger.

Name two parts of the limbic system and function

Amygdala, expression and recognition of fear

Hippocampus, responsible for memory and plasticity.