Unit 4 The Brain Analysis

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Unit 4 – Fiona Bennett
Brain Science
In this unit I will be investigating the structure of the brain. The human brain is responsible for everything that happens in our bodies. On average the brain weighs 1.5 kilograms. It is one the most complex organs in the human body. The brain controls everything from coordinating movements to constructing sentences and even simple things like breathing. The brain is supplied with oxygen to keep it alive by a network of blood vessels.
Structure of the brain
The brain is made up of 4 main parts and they are:
● The cerebral cortex,
● Limbic system,
● The cerebellum
● and the brain stem
The cerebral cortex
The cerebral cortex is split into two cerebral hemispheres (the left and right hemispheres). Sometimes
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It also helps us to be able to comprehend and understand speech as it aids us in understanding different sounds and pitches coming from the sensory receptors in the ears. The amygdale controls the response to fear.
Limbic system
The limbic system is located at the top of the brainstem. It is associated with emotions especially those that deal with fear and anger as well as emotions such as pleasure. It is also responsible for survival instincts. Parts of the limbic system are connected to memory, this is important for sorting and storing memories. The limbic system also is important regulating our emotions.
The cerebellum
The cerebellum is also known as the little brain. Similarly to the cerebrum it also has two hemispheres. It is situated at the back of the skull. It controls movement, balance and coordination. The cerebellum controls motor movement and voluntary movements for example posture, speech and balancing muscular activity. It is also responsible for receiving information from the sensory system, the spinal cord and parts of the brain.
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Excitatory ion channel synapses have neuroreceptors that are Na+ channels, when Na+ channels open, depolarisation takes place. However inhibitory ion channels consist of neuroreceptors that are Cl- channels, when the chlorine anion channels open, hyperpolarisation takes place, making action potential unlikely. Non channel synapses - neuroreceptors are enzymes that are bound to the membrane. When activated, they catalyse (cause or accelerate) the 'messenger chemical', which can have an affect on the sensitivity of the ion channel receptors in the cells. Neuromuscular junctions - synapses formed between motor neurones and muscle cells. Electrical synapses - the membranes of the two cells actually touch and they share proteins. The action potential can pass directly from one membrane to the

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