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100 Cards in this Set

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what is the study of how we use cognitive processes - such as perception, memory, and thought - to help make sense of other people as well as ourselves.
Social Cognition
What is the difference between bottom-up processing and top-down processing?
Bottom-up processing - the actual physical sensations received by the sensory equipment
Top-down processing - takes into account our expectations and beliefs about the world.
What is one of the most powerful determinants of a first impression is a person's what?
Physical Appearance
Why do we rely on physical appearance to form a first impression?
When you form a first impression you use the information that is available.
What are general knowledge structures stored in memory?
Schemas
When schemas are about social experiences or people, they're commonly called what?
social schemas
When social schemas revolve around the traits and behaviors of groups and their members, they're called ________. and what are the 3 most common forms of this?
stereotypes
gender, race, age
what is the difference between prototype theories and exemplar theories?
Prototype theories of stereotypes assume we store abstract representations of the typical features of a group; we then judge particular individuals based on their similarity to the prototype.
Exemplar theories assume we store memories of particular individuals, or exemplars, and these individual memories form the basis for stereotypes.
Once stereotypes are activated, we expect certain kinds of behavior from members of groups. These expectations can produce a _______________________, which occurs when your expectations about a person's actions cause that person to behave in the expected way.
self-fulfilling prophecy effect
__________ can cause us to overgeneralize and place too much emphasis on the differences that exist between groups.
Stereotypes
what is the difference between prejudice and discrimination?
prejudice - occurs when groups and their members are evaluate in a negative way.
Discrimination - occurs when those beliefs lead to behaviors that are directed against members of the group.
How can we reduce the prejudicial feelings that come from stereotypes?
repeated exposure to individuals in the stereotyped group.
When people assign causes to behaviors, psychologists refer to these inferences as ________; these theories are concerned primarily with the
psychological processes that underlie these inferences of cause and effect.
attributions
According to the ___________________, the first thing you'll look for is some factor that happens at the same time as, or covaries with, the behavior change.
Covariation model of attribution
What three pieces of information does the covariation model rely on and what do each do?
consistency - try and determine whether the change occurs regularly when the causal event is present.
Distinctiveness - provides and indication of whether the change occurs uniquely in the presence of the event.
Consensus - Tells us whether other people show similar reactions when they're exposed to the same causal event.
When someone appeals to external causes, when the behavior is high in consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus this is known as ________________.
External attribution
when someone uses _________________ that means they attributed to his pleasant behavior to some internal personality trait or disposition.
Internal attribution
Internal attributions are common when the consistency of a behavior is ______ but its distinctiveness and consensus are ______.
high, low
When we seek to interpret someone else's behavior, we tend to overestimate the influence of internal personal factors and underestimate the role of external situational factors. This is know as what?
Fundamental attribution error`
Attributions which focus on the situation, don't usually enter our minds because why?
our first tendency is to attribute behavior to a personal characteristic.
The overall tendency to attribute our own behavior to external sources but to attribute the behavior of others to internal sources is what?
actor-observer effect.
What is it called when one takes internal credit for our actions when those actions produce positive outcomes? and why is this adaptive?
self-serving bias
its adaptive because it allows us to bolster and maintain our self-esteem and project self-importance.
_______ is simply a positive or negative evaluation or belief held about something, which in turn may affect behavior. They help us remain consistent in our actions and use our knowledge about individuals or situations.
attitudes
Social psychologists divide attitudes into three components, what are they and what do each of them do?
Cognitive Component - represents what people know or believe about the object of their attitude.
Affective component - represents what people know or believe about the object of their attitude, made up of the feelings the object produces.
Behavioral Component - a predisposition to act toward the object in a particular way.
why don't attitudes always directly affect behavior?
People sometimes act in ways that are inconsistent with their attitudes, in some situations its unwise to express your true feelings.
Events that occur outside of our control can acquire signaling properties, through ________ _______, and then serve as an initial foundation for an attitude.
Classical Conditioning
Through _______ _________, attitudes are influence by the rewards and punishments we receive for our actions. It teaches us about the consequences of our behavior.
Operant Conditioning
Much of what we acquire from experience is the result of _______ ________.
Observational Learning
"He told me to do it.""Everybody else did it too!""Nobody else did anything either." These are comments likely to be heard when explaining behavior in situations like Milgram’s experiment, riots, and the Kitty Genovese case. Each comment illustrates the importance of ________________________.
Diffusion of Responsibility
An evolutionary approach to attractiveness would suggest people are attracted to people who are _______ and ________ looking.
youthful and healthy looking
Based on research on first impressions, when Ed first sees a very attractive person he will assume the person is what?
better adjusted than people with an average appearance.
Bem's self-perception theory has been used to explain the ________________ technique.
Foot-in-door technique
Ben realized that every time he had an open elective, he took a psychology class. Based on his observation, Ben has decided he must like psychology. Ben’s attitude is best explained by _____________________ theory.
Self-perception theory
Brad believes students of Asian heritage are excellent students and especially good at math and science. Brad's belief is an example of a _______.
stereotype
Don is normally a hard worker, but when 50 people showed up to clean the ballpark, Don watched more than he worked. Don's behavior is most similar to _________________.
social loafing
Election commercials that attempt to persuade viewers by listing the candidate's views and accomplishments are using a _______________ strategy.
central route strategy
If Anne makes the ____________________, she will explain her favorite politician's loss in the election by saying, "He just didn't have the campaign skills necessary to get his ideas across."
Fundamental Attribution Error
Ben realized that every time he had an open elective, he took a psychology class. Based on his observation, Ben has decided he must like psychology. Ben’s attitude is best explained by the ______________.
Peripheral route
In the large Mardi Gras crowd, Jill felt anonymous and depersonalized, and she did some things very uncharacteristic of her normal behavior. Jill seems to have experienced _____________.
Deindividuation
Kim complained to Flo, “You mostly make internal attributions concerning my behavior, but you make external attributions about your behavior.” If Kim’s accusation is true, Flow’s behavior illustrates the _____________________.
Actor-Observer Effect
Members of the Residence Hall Council initially felt that some minor restrictions were needed in the visitation policies. After a very lengthy, well-balanced, and thorough discussion, they produced a very extreme proposal restricting visitation to 1:00-7:00 pm. Their shift to a more extreme view illustrates ________________.
Group Polarization
Mira’s recital performance was marred by several squeaks and honks. Before deciding why Mira’s performance was poor, you considered whether she usually honks and squeaks in other situations. Your decision emphasized ____________.
Distinctiveness
Research has found that people tended to rate as most attractive pictures of people created by doing what?
averaging photos of many other people
Research on __________ has shown that Milgram's basic results can be replicated in many countries.
obedience
The head of marketing often claimed, "Say it often enough, and people will start to believe it." This suggests she believes attitudes are influenced by ________________.
mere exposure
Newborns prefer faces rated as __________ by adults.
attractive
An emphasis on _______________ is more typical in non-Western cultures.
Shared Characteristics
Birds of a feather flock together is best supported by research on ____________.
friendships
John acts nervous when he talks with his psychology professor. If many other students also act nervous in that situation, the covariation model would describe the behavior as _____ in _________.
high in consensus
According to Kelly's covariation model, internal attributions are most likely when there is ______ consistency, _____ consensus, and ____ distinctiveness.
high, low, low
Election commercials that attempt to persuade viewers by listing the candidate's views and accomplishments are using a _______________ strategy.
central route strategy
According to your text, negative evaluations of a group and its members defines _______.
prejudice
Cognitive dissonance occurs when what?
a person's behavior is not consistent with his or her attitude.
Abe had made 100% of his free throws when alone in the gym, but when the coaches showed up, he missed four in a row. This is an example of __________ _______.
Social interference
When a student gets up and leaves during the middle of his lecture, Dr. Marsh is more likely to think, "That student is a rude fool" than “That student must be ill.” This illustrates the ___________________.
fundamental attribution error.
When the quarterback threw a game-winning pass, he attributed his success to his great skill. When he threw a disastrous interception, he attributed his failure to a gust of wind. This pattern represents the _____________.
self-serving bias
Although at least 20 people saw Tyrone’s serious fall, several minutes passed before anybody came over to help. This lack of action can best be explained in terms of __________________.
Diffusion of responsibility
April knows she is 20 lbs too heavy to look good in low-rider jeans, but because everybody else is wearing them, so does she. April’s behavior reflects ___________.
Conformity
In the aftermath of the World Trade Center attack, many people immediately stopped to help strangers who were injured. This behavior represents __________.
Altruism
Some critics have suggested that President Bush’s staff were more concerned with getting a consensus on the issue of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq than listening to dissenting opinions. If true, this situation is an example of _______________.
groupthink
Mike and Carol share an incredibly strong need to be with each other and strong emotional arousal when together. Their relationship is an example of _____________.
Passionate Love
Coach Bob has heard that Tim is not a very good baseball player. As a result, he gives Tim little time or attention in practice and little playing time in games. Sure enough, Tim was the worst player at the end of the season. This is best explained in terms of a ____________________.
a self-fulfilling prophecy effect
Kit, a volunteer, and Tom, a highly paid staff member, work on Candidate Smith’s campaign. Although Candidate Smith recently admitted he has a criminal conviction, both Kit and Tom have continued to work for him. According to cognitive dissonance theory, how are Kit’s and Tom’s attitudes about Candidate Smith likely to have changed since the news about his criminal record?
Both Kit’s and Tom’s attitudes became less favorable, but Tom’s changed more.
Sid is an Indianapolis Pacers basketball fan. He knows the team’s win-loss record and the achievements of the individual players. He buys season tickets every year and gets angry if anyone says they aren’t the best. The behavioral component of Sid’s attitude is what?
buying season tickets every year
Dozens of cars passed by before Jack got help when stranded on a busy road. Mike got help from the first person to pass by when he had car trouble on an almost deserted road. The difference in helping behavior they encountered is most consistent with the ________________.
Bystander effect
Charities emphasize getting any kind of donation at first, no matter how small. They know that having complied with a small request makes a person much more likely to comply with a large request later. This represents the ____________________.
foot-in-the-door technique
Georgia just met a woman who is like a twin sister. She likes the same things Georgia likes, she looks a little like Georgia, and she often starts to say the same thing as Georgia. Based on the research on interpersonal relationships, Georgia will probably do what?
very quickly become lasting friends with this person
If feelings of closeness, connectedness, and warmth characterize a relationship, Sternberg would say the relationship is high in ________.
Intimacy
According to the ________________, there are two primary routes to persuasion. What are they?
elaboration likelihood model
central route and peripheral route
The _________ route to persuasion is the most obvious and
familiar one. IT operates when we're motivated and inclined to process and incoming persuasive communication with care and attention
Central route
The _______ roue to persuasion operate when we're either unable to process the message carefully or are unmotivated to do so. Our attitudes are much more susceptible to change from superficial cues or from mere exposure.
Peripheral route
When our motivation to process the message is low, we're much more likely to be persuaded by _______________ which are things such as celebrities, attractiveness, or power.
source characteristics.
What is the theory of cognitive dissonance?
Tension that is produced when people act in a way that is inconsistent with their attitude.
According to cognitive dissonance theory, if the discrepancy between what you believe and how you act is great, you will do what two things?
Change your behavior or change your beliefs.
the idea that we are active observers of our own behavior and we learn from our behavior and use our actions as a basis for inferring internal beliefs is called what?
The self-perception theory
the _____ technique is getting you to verbally agree to the initial purchase, the sales person lowered your resistance to buying the product.
lowball technique.
___________ is the study of how the behaviors and thoughts of individuals are affected by the presence of others.
social influence
The enhancement in performance that is sometimes found when we perform in the presence of others is known as ________________.
social facilitation
Performing in a crowd when it impairs performance is called what?
social interference
Acting in a way that shows unselfish concern for the welfare of others is called what?
Altruism
________________ altruism, means that there's a greater chance we'll help relatives, but we'll help strangers under some circumstances.
kin-directed altruism
When we act altruistically because we anticipate that the favor will be returned is a concept known as what?
reciprocal altruism
the reluctance to come to the aid of a person in need when other people are present is known as what?
bystander effect
We tend not to lend a hand, or get involved, because the presence of others leads to ________________ - we believe others have already done something to help or well soon get involved.
Diffusion of responsibility
When participating as a member of a group, most people show a strong tendency to engage in _________, which means they put out less effort than when they are alone.
social loafing
The idea that we feel less accountable for our behavior when we're in a group setting can lead to a phenomenon called ___________.
deindividuation
_______ occurs when a person's opinions, feelings, and behaviors start to move toward the group norm.
conformity
Conformity is particularly likely when pressure comes from an _________ - that is a group of individuals with who you share features in common or with whom you identify.
ingroup
Why do we conform to the majority opinion? 2 reasons,
One - we generally seek approbal in social settings and try to avoid rejection.
May also be the case that we use the majority group opinion as a source of information
_________________ means that the group's dominant point of view - which is usually determined by the initial views of the majority - becomes stronger and even more extreme with time.
Group Polarization
When member of a group become so interested in seeking a consensus of opinion that they start to ignore and even suppress dissenting views is called what?
Groupthink
The result of group think is general __________ and an overestimation of the _________ of opinion.
closed-mindedness
uniformity
Psychologists use the term _________ to describe the form of compliance that occurs when people respond to the orders of an authority figure.
obedience
In Milgram's experiment he found that ____% of the 40 people who participated were willing to deliver shocks up to 450 volts, and no one quit before the pounding on the wall started. This means that ____ out of 40 participants went all the way to the final switch.
65%
26 out of 40
Milgram's experiment was controversial for what two main reasons?
The manner in which it was conducted raised serious ethical questions because the people were misled from the beginning and become severely distressed during their participation.
Some critics argued that perhaps the participants had seen through the cover and were simply trying to please the experimenter.
In places such as the United States, people are taught from a very young age to adopt an __________ view of self.
independent
In many non-Western cultures, people adopt a very different ______ view of self.
interdependent
If the purpose of attraction is to snare an ideal mate, then preferably it should be someone with what?
a high reproductive capactiy or someone who is able to provide protection of his or her children and compete successfully for need resources.
Some research suggests that universality of attractiveness may be partly due to the fact that people are programmed to prefer faces that are what?
average representations of faces in a population.
Why would people prefer faces that are prototypical?
Prototypical faces are easy to identify and classify as human faces.
People are programmed biologically to prefer prototypical faced because individuals with average features may be less likely to harbor potentially harmful genetic mutations.