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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

How strong militarily was the US when George Washington became president in 1789?


What threatened our new nation?

Events in Europe, particularly when France declared war on Great Britain.

What issue did Washington face?

He didn't know what side to take.

What policy did he decide on?

Neutrality and isolationism

What is neutrality?

A policy of not choosing sides in a dispute or war between other countries.

What did avoiding alliances with other countries become known as?


What occurred following the Jay Treaty?

The British agreed to pull their troops from the Ohio Valley. France viewed this as a violation of their treaty with the US and began attacking US ship bound for Great Britain.

What did President Adams do when this occurred?

He sent 3 representatives to France to ask the French to end the attacks.

What happened when the US representatives arrived?

They were met by secret agents, X, Y, and Z.

Did the secret agents agree to negotiate?

Not until Foreign Minister Tallyrand received a large sum of money as a tribute.

Did the Americans agree to pay the tribute?


How did Americans feel about the XYZ affair?

It angered them!

What did Congress approve?

An army of 10,000 men and 12 ships was recruited and built. Congress launched a "half war" on the seas.

How did President Adams feel about the war?

He knew it was not good for the country and sent a group of men to France to work for peace.

Was peace achieved?

French military leader, Napoleon Bonapart made a treaty with the US in which he agreed to end France's alliance with the US and the US agreed to not make France pay for the ships which they seized.

How did the American people feel about the treaty?

They didn't like it. It hurt Adams popularity and cost him votes in 1800.

How did President Jefferson react to France and Great Britain being at war again in 1803?

He tried to remain neutral.

What was happening to American soldiers?

They were being impressed.

What is impressment?

Soldiers were being kidnapped by the British navy and being forced to serve in that navy. The British claimed the Americans were British deserters.

What else did American ships have to deal with?

Piracy, or robbery at sea.

What did the US do to try to help the piracy situation?

They paid a tribute to the Barbary State rulers in exchange for safety for American ships but the ruler of Tripoli demanded more and declared war on the US.

How did the US respond to Tripoli declaring war on our country?

They fought back. But after a year a peace treaty was signed.

Was the treaty effective?

No, ships continued to be raided in the Mediterranean.

What did Jefferson propose?

An embargo.

What is an embargo?

A government order that forbids trade with another country.

How did the Embargo Act affect Americans?

They were hurt more than anyone else 55,000 sailors lost their jobs.

Did the Embargo Act stay in effect?

No, it was repealed.

How did President Madison try to protect American sailors?

He offered France and Great Britain a deal; if they stopped attacking American ships, we would stop trading with their enemies.

How did France and Great Britain respond to Madison's proposal?

France agreed but the British continue to seize American ships and impress American sailors.

What was going on in the US with the Indians at this time?

As American settlers began moving into the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys, the Indians began to fight back, armed with British guns.

How did American respond to the Indian attacks?

They were outraged and felt that they needed to make the frontier safe for settlers.

How did they propose making the frontier safe?

The US thought they needed to drive the British out of Canada so that it could be added to the US.

What did James Madison decide to do?

Madison decided to abandon isolationism.

What did he request that Congress do?

At Madison's request, Congress declared war on Great Britain on July 17, 1812.

Did the US forces easily conquer Canada?

No. They were forced back by British forces several times. Despite capturing a British fleet on Lake Erie, they were forced back by British troops.

Where did the British attack in the US?

The British burned buildings in Washington DC and they bombarded Fort McHenry in Maryland.

Were the British victorious in Maryland?

No, the American flag still flew.

How strong were the British troops at this point?

They were weakening as was their desire to continue.

British leaders in the US were unaware that the leaders in Britain were losing their desire to continue. What did they do?

They sent more than 7,500 troops to New Orleans.

Who were the British troops met by?

General Andrew Jackson and his troops.

What had the leaders in Britain done prior to the troops marching to New Orleans?

They signed the Treaty of Ghent ending the war. The British lost around 2,000 troops unnecessarily.

Who won the war of 1812?

No one really though both claimed victory.

What resulted after the war?

Impressments and ship seizures faded, Indian resistance in the Northwest Territory weakened, and national pride surged.

What policy did President Monroe embrace?

He returned the country to its policy of isolationism.

Where were conflicts beginning to rise up?

Latin American countries were starting to rise up against Spain.

What did President Monroe announce?

The Monroe Doctrine

What did the Monroe Doctrine state?

The Monroe Doctrine stated that North and South America were "free and independent" and could not be colonized by any European powers.

How did Europeans feel about the Monroe Doctrine?

They did like it and thought Monroe was arrogant.

How did Americans feel about the Monroe Doctrine?

They cheered the message.

What became the US foreign policy in the years ahead?

The Monroe Doctrine joined isolationism as our foreign policy. The US became a strong and confident nation.