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75 Cards in this Set

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The belief that people cannot obtain salvation through good works -- "faith alone" is all that is required. Seventeenth-century authorities feared that antinomians would feel that it was not necessary to work for the betterment of the community and might even put themselves above the rules and regulations that governed society.

the "backcountry"

Newly settled lands in the western "interior" portion of the early colonies. Backcountry colonists often found themselves at odds with the wealthier settlers of the coastal regions. Example: Virginia and the Bacon Rebellion of 1675.


Essentially an agreement in which people are united for a specific purpose. Rooted in Protestant theology, such agreements were the basis for church governments (especially among Calvinist congregations) and, in time, influenced civil governments as well. In this way, the covenant concept helped establish the idea of government by the consent of the governed.


Grants of land donated to new settlers in the Chesapeake by the Virginia Company and the Lords Baltimore


Conforming to the accepted doctrines or system of beliefs of a group, refusing to deviate or alter one's beliefs (for example, orthodox Puritans).


Spanish missions or forts. Many presidios sprang up on the Pacific coast at the end of the eighteenth century (1770s and 1780s).

proprietary colony

A colony whose charter was granted by the king to an individual or a group (proprietors). Although the charter might place certain restrictions on the proprietors, in general they were free to run the colony as they wished--appointing governors, establishing assemblies, dividing and granting land. Because most proprietors were essentially land speculators and concerned with profit (either from the sale of land or from quitrents), they usually relaxed political and religious restrictions so as to attract colonists. But even with these concessions, proprietary governments at times proved unpopular, and opposition to them was one source of turmoil in the late seventeenth century.

royal colony

A colony over which the king of England assumed control, granting it a royal charter in place of the charter it previously held. Not an act of tyranny, as often pictured, royalization guaranteed that England's laws (and English subjects' rights) would apply to colony and colonists. A royal governor was appointed by the king to see that such laws were carried out, and a council, composed of prominent men of the colony (appointed by the king, but with the advice of local leaders), was established to advise the executive. Most important, at least to the colonists in general, was the authorization of an elected legislature (variously known as the Commons House of Assembly, the House of Burgesses, and the like) to pass local laws and deal with problems particular to the colony. This legislative activity was naturally to conform to English law and was subject to royal approval or disallowance. In time, the council came to act as the upper house of the legislature, while the commons functioned as the lower, an arrangement that, to the colonists at least, strongly resembled the relationship that existed between the House of Commons and the House of Lords in England. This system varied from colony to colony and underwent many changes as it evolved; yet, by the end of the colonial era, most of the British-American colonies shared its basic institutional structure.


A society run by religious leaders, in which the church is almost indistinguishable from the state.


First successful English town, founded in 1608. Charter was issued by the London Company (renamed the Virginia Company)

Captain John Smith

Admiral of New England, was an English soldier, explorer, and author. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony (based at Jamestown) between September 1608 and August 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay. He was the first English explorer to map the Chesapeake Bay area and New England. Famous explorer who led Jamestown in 1608.

Lord De La Warr

An English-American politician, for whom the bay, the river, and, consequently, a Native American people and U.S. state, all later called " Delaware", were named. Lord De La Warr headed the contingent of 150 men who landed in Jamestown, Virginia on June 10, 1610, just in time to persuade the original settlers to give up and go home to England. As a veteran of destructive English campaigns against the Irish, De La Warr employed those "scorched earth" tactics against the Native Americans.

John Rolfe

One of the early English settlers of North America. He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia and is known as the husband of Pocahontas. Jamestown planter who began cultivating tobacco.

The "Headright" System

Grants of land donated to new settlers in the Chesapeake by the Virginia Company and the Lords Baltimore. 50-acre grants of land to each new settler. Those already there ... two headrights apiece. Policy by which each New World settler received a certain amount of land.

Virginia House of Burgesses

The first elected government body in the British colonies


Chief of the Powhatan Indians near Jamestown and father of Pocahontas.


Daughter of Powhatan, married to John Rolfe. She played a role in mediating differences between the Europeans and her people.

Lord Baltimore

A Catholic British lord, Cecilius Calvert, who founded Maryland. His brother, Leonard Calvert, was the governor of the colony.

1649 "Act Concerning Religion"

Assured freedom of religion in Maryland, in the face of a growing protestant population. Religious toleration in the climate of tensions between the Catholic minority and the Protestant majority.

Sir William Berkeley

Governor of Virginia whose expansion of power helped spur Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.

Nathaniel Bacon

Led a revolt in 1676 against Virginia Gov. William Berkeley, a clash between landed tidewater aristocrats and settlers in the new lands of the west (i.e. the "backcountry")

The Scrooby Separatists

Puritans from England who moved to Holland and then to Plymouth in 1620. Scrooby was the English town where they originated.


Settled by Puritan pilgrims in 1620. It was in an area north of Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

The Mayflower Compact

First colonial agreement that formed a government by the consent of the governed. Puritan pilgrims "saints", leaders, drew up the agreement before stepped ashore at Plymouth Rock on December 21, 1620.

William Bradford

First governor of the Plymouth colony (Plymouth Plantation)

The Massachusetts Bay Company

English trading company (Puritan merchants) who obtained a grant of land in New England (Massachusetts and New Hampshire) that evolved into a theocracy. It was organized in 1628, founded Boston. Wanted to create a refuge in New England for Puritans.

John Winthrop

Governor of Boston under Mass Bay Company in 1630 under Massachusetts Bay Company.

"City on a Hill"

Winthrop's vision of an idealized example for the old world ... founding a holy commonwealth, a model for the corrupt world to see and emulate.

Thomas Hooker

Founded Hartford, Connecticut, in 1635. Minister of Newtown (Cambridge) who defied the Massachusetts government and led his congregation west.

The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

The Fundamental Orders were adopted by the Connecticut Colony council on January 15, 1639. It has the features of a written constitution, and is considered by some as the first written Constitution in the Western tradition, and thus earned Connecticut its nickname of The Constitution State. Give larger proportion of the men the right to vote and hold office.

The Fundamental Articles of New Haven

A Bible-based government in New Haven, Connecticut, that was stricter than that of the Massachusetts Bay government.

Roger Williams

Founder of Rhode Island, an anti-British separatist preacher. Argued that the Massachusetts church should abandon all allegiance to the Church of England. He was deported and created the town of Providence with his followers.

Anne Hutchinson

Notable "Antinomian" leader who fled from Boston to Connecticut and then to New York. Argued the clergy were not among the "elect" and entitled to no spiritual authority. She was convicted of antinomian heresy and sedition and was banished.

The Antinomian heresy

A centuries-old heresy whose basic tenet held that Christians were not bound by traditional moral law, particularly that of the Old Testament. Instead, man could be guided by an inner light that would reveal the proper forms of conduct. Means "against the law." Anne Hutchinson was convicted of this heresy.

The Pequot War

1637 hostilities between English settlers in the Connecticut Vally and the Pequot Indians. The natives were almost wiped out.


Wampanoag chieftain, known as "King Philip", who resisted English settlement.

King Philip's War

An armed conflict between Native American inhabitants (Wampanoag) of present-day New England and English colonists and their Native American allies (Mohawk) in 1675–78. The war is named for the main leader of the Native American side, Metacomet, who had adopted the English name "King Philip" in honor of the previously-friendly relations between his father and the original Mayflower Pilgrims. Crushed by the white settlers.

Flintlock musket

In the King Philip's War, the Indians made effective use of a relatively new European weapon that they acquired from the English vs the heavy cumbersome matchlock rifle used by the colonialist.

Charles I

English King who dissolved Parliamnet in 1629 sparking the English Civil War in 1642. Beheaded after the English Civil War in 1649

English Civil War

Forces of Parliament (the Roundheads) vs. forces of King Charles (the Cavaliers) 1642-1649


Supporters of King Charles I in the English Civil War


(Largely Puritan) supporters of Parliament in the English Civil War

Oliver Cromwell

Lord Protector of England and leader of the victorious protestant faction in the English Civil War

Charles II

Restored King of England, son of Charles I, crowned in 1660

Anthony Ashley Cooper

1st Earl of Shaftesbury and strong parliamentarian involved in civil war and restoration. Only successful proprietor of the Carolina Colony at Port Royal then in 1690 founded the colonial capital at Charles Town (renamed Charleston.)

Fundamental Constitution for Carolina

Adopted in March 1, 1669 by the eight Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina, which included most of the land between what is now Virginia and Florida. Divided the colony into counties of equal size and divided each county into equal parcels of land. Social hierarchy: 1) proprietors or "seigneurs", 2) local aristocracy of lesser lords or "landgraves"/"caciques", 3) ordinary settlers or "leet-men", 4) poor whites and African slaves


British-controlled islands in the Caribbean, known for exporting sugar and slaves

Richard Nicolls

First English colonial governor of New York province. His expedition set sail from Portsmouth on 25 May 1664, and arrived in New Amsterdam on 27 August 1664. New Amsterdam, under Peter Stuyvesant, was surrendered to Nicolls on 8 September 1664.

Peter Stuyvesant

Last Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664, after which it was renamed New York.

James II

The Catholic king of England, deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was replaced by his Protestant elder daughter, Mary and her husband William of Orange.

Sir George Carteret

James II gave a large part of the land south of New York to Carteret and John Berkeley, both Carolina proprietors. Carteret named the territory New Jersey.

The Quakers

The Society of Friends, a pacifist protestant denomination

William Penn

A Quaker convert and founder of Pennsylvania

Charter of Liberties

Penn agreed to this charter for the colony. It established a representative assembly (only one house) that greatly limited the authority of the proprietor. Permitted the "lower counties" to establish their own representative assembly.

New Mexico

The most prosperous and populous of Spanish outposts in the Southwest.

James Oglethorpe

English general who founded Georgia in 1733 with the intent of creating a haven for debtors. The military and philanthropic colony of Georgia. "Our perpetual dictator" (called by the residents of Georgia) because of his constant dissensions and heavy-handed regulation of the colony.

The Navigation Acts

1660 British acts restricting colonial trade to ships of British origin. They began in 1651 and ended 200 years later. They reflected the policy of mercantilism, which sought to keep all the benefits of trade inside the Empire, and minimize the loss of gold and silver to foreigners. They prohibited the colonies from trading directly with the Netherlands, Spain, France, and their colonies. Acts which formed the legal basis of English regulation of the colonies for a century.

Lords of Trade

1675 body created to recommend imperial reform

Dominion of New England

James II's amalgamation of New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts and the rest of the New England colonies under one governor, Sir Edmond Andros. Highly unpopular. William and Mary abolished it and restored separate colonial governments.

Dominion of New England
North American colony created by King James II and made up of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and New Jersey.

Sir Edmund Andros

An English colonial administrator in North America. He was the governor of the Dominion of New England, on the authority of King James II, during most of its three-year existence. Arrested and imprisoned after the "Glorious Revolution"

William and Mary

The protestant power couple brought in to replace the Catholic James II king of England in 1688

The Glorious Revolution

The bloodless replacement of King James II with William and Mary in 1688

Jacob Leisler

Dutch merchantman who revolted against Captain Francis Nicholson, the British governor of New York, and took control of the colony after the "Glorious Revolution." William and Mary appointed a new governor. Leisler was convicted of treason and executed.

Leislerians and anti-Leislerians

Supporters of Leisler and detractors that dominated the politics of the colony for years after Jacob Leisler's execution. The revolt left the colony polarized, bitterly split into two rival factions. Over time the Leislerians tended to associate with the British Whig faction, and the anti-Leislerians with the Tories.


It was colonial Virginia's most successful cash crop.

“Starving Time”

In the Colony of Virginia was a period of starvation during the winter of 1609–1610 in which all but 60 of 214 colonists died

John Locke

An English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism." His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.

George Fox

An English Dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers or Friends.


An English ship, the Olive Blossom, arrived in Barbados in 1625; its men took possession of it in the name of King James I. In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, and it became an English and later British colony.

“Middle Grounds”

Referring to the Middle colonies during colonial time. The middle colonies were New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.


A system of church governance in which every local church congregation is independent, ecclesiastically sovereign, or "autonomous".


The type of church government the Puritans implemented in Massachusetts.

"half-way covenant"

The Puritans implemented this to relax the requirements for membership, preserve the church, and increase the number of people who were eligible to vote.

"Malleus Maleficarium"

A treatise on the prosecution of witches, written in 1486 by Heinrich Kramer, a German Catholic clergyman. Used in the Salem Witch Scare.