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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
blood is what kind of tissue
connective
blood is a complex mixture of what three things
-cells
-cell fragments
-dissolved biochemicals
what are the functions of the blood
-transports nutrients, oxygen, wastes and hormones
-maintain the stability of the interstitial fluid
-distributes heat
where are cells formed and what are their functions
-formed in red bone marrow
-red blood cells transport gases
-white blood cells fight disease
what is the function of platelets
control blood loss
hematocrit
-HCT
-percentage of red blood cells in a blood sample
-about 45%
what percentage of blood volume do white blood cells and platelets account for
less than 1%
what is plasma
-straw colored liquid
- mixture of water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes and cellular wastes

-92% water

-transports nutrients, gases and vitamins, helps to regulate fluid and electroylte balance, maintains a favorable PH
how much blood does an average adult have
men- 5-6 liters
women- 4-5 liters

varies with fluid and electrolyte concentrations, body size and adipose tissue
what is the oxygen carrying component of red blood cells
hemoglobin
erythrocytes
-red blood cells
- bioconcave disks
-
what is the result when hemoglobin binds oxygen
oxyhemoglobin
what is the result when oxygen is released from hemoglobin
deoxyhemoglobin
what does the lack of nucleus mean for red blood cells
they can not synthesize proteins or divide
how do red blood cells produce ATP
glycolysis
red blood cell count
the number of red blood cells in a microliter of blood

men - 4,600,000- 6,200,000
women- 4,200,000- 5,400,000

RBCC or RCC
erythropoiesis
red blood cell formation
where are red blood cells formed initially
yolk sac
liver
spleen
where are red blood cells produced after birth
tissue lining in the spaces in the bones filled with red bone marrow
what are the stages of red blood cell production
-hematopoietic stem cell
-myeloid stem cell
-proerythroblast
-erythroblast
-normoblast
-reticulocyte
-erythrocyte
what is the life span of a red blood cell
120 days
erythropoietin
-hormone controlling rate of red blood cell production
-released from kidney and to lesser extent the liver in response to prolonged oxygen deficiency
polycythemia
excessive increase in red blood cells

increases blood viscosity, slows blood flow, impairs circulation
what is needed from DNA synthesis?
B12
folic acid
what is needed for hemoglobin synthesis
iron
anemia
-deficiency in red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin they contain

-affected person may become pale and lack energy
what happens to hematocrit levels when blood volume increases
in decreases
hemochromatosis
-inherited disorder
-small intestine absorbs iron at ten times the normal rate
-treatment is periodic blood removal
sickle cell disease
-single DNA based mutation changes one amino acid in the protein part of hemoglobin

-this causes hemoglobin to crystallize in a low oxygen enviroment

-sickle shape red blood cells from bending due to lack of oxygen

-painful

-derived from malaria regions
hydroxyurea
drug used to activate production of a form of hemoglobin normally produced only in the fetus

slows sickeling
With age , red blood cells become increasingly fragile and are damaged by passing through the ____________
capillaries
what phagocytizes damaged red blood cells and where does this happen
-macrophages

-liver and spleen
what are macrophages
large phagocytic wondering cells
heme group
hemoglobin molecules liberated from the red blood cells breakdown

further breaks down into biliverdin
in what form is iron stored in the liver
iron-protein complex
what color is biliverdin
green
what color is bilirubin
orange
where are bilirubin and biliverdin excreted
bile as bile pigments
jaundice
-accumulation of bilirubin turns skin and eyes yellowish

-may be the result of immature liver cells that ineffectively excrete bilirubin into the bile
leukocytes
-white blood cells

-develop from hematopoietic stem cells in red bone marrow
what hormones are used in stimulation for white blood cells
-interleukins
numbered
-colony stimulating factors
named for the cell population they stimulate
what is the function of white blood cells
protect against disease
what are the five types of leukocytes
neutrophils
eosinophils
basophils
monocytes
lymphocytes
granulocytes
leukocytes with granular cytoplasm
agranulocytes
leukocytes without cytoplasmic granules
how big is a granulocyte
twice the size of the red blood cell
what is the average life span of a granulocyte
12 hours
neutrophils

color?
granules?
nucleus?
purpose?
percentage?
-purple staining fine cytoplasmic granules
- c shaped lobed nucleus
-phagocytize small particles
-account for 54-62 %
diapedesis
leukocytes squeeze through the cells that form vessel walls, this is that movement
eosinophils

color?
granules?
nucleus?
purpose?
percentage?
- stain red
-coarse granules
-2 lobed
-kills parasites and moderates allergic reactions
-1-3%
Basophils

color?
granules?
nucleus?
purpose?
percentage?
-deep blue
-fewer granules
-size and shape of nuclei similar to eosinophils
-releases heparin and histamine
-less than 1%
what is the function of

herperin

histamine
inhibits clotting

promotes inflammation
monocytes

color?
granules?
nucleus?
purpose?
percentage?
largest blood cells

-purple
-agranular
-kidney bean shaped nucleus
-phagacytizes large particles
-3-9%
lymphocytes

color?
granules?
nucleus?
purpose?
percentage?
only slightly larger than red blood cells

-purple
-agranular
-large round nucleus
-provides immunity
-25-33%
amoeboid motion
self propulsion motion of leukocytes
what do monocytes become when they leave the blood stream
macrophages
what do macrophages do
phagocytize bacteria, dead cells and other debris
lysosomes
organelles filled with digestive enzymes that break down organic molecules captured in bacteria, nutrients and worn out organelles
what is a normal white blood cell count
4,000-11,000 per microliter of human blood
leukocytosis
total number of white blood cells exceeding 11,000 per microliter

indicates acute infection
leukopenia
white blood cell count below 4,000 per microliter

may accompany typhoid fever, influenza, measles, mumps, chickenpox, AIDS, poliomyelitis
differential white blood cell count
percentages of types of leukocytes in a blood sample

-useful because relative proportions change with particular diseases
changes in white blood cell counts with disease

bacterial infections

parasitic infections and allergic reactions

AIDS
number of neutrophils increases

number of eosinophils increase

lymphocyte drop sharply
thrombocytes
-platelets

-arise from megakaryocytes in the red bone marrow

-develeop from hemapoietic stem cells in response to thrombopoietin

-lacks a nucleus

-less than half the size of a red blood cell

-lives 10 days
what is a normal platelet count
130,00-360,000
what are the most abundant of the dissolved substances found in plasma
plasma proteins
what are the three types of plasma proteins
albumins
globulins
fibrinogen
albumins
-smallest of the plasma proteins
-account for 60% of these proteins by weight
-synthesized in the liver
-important determinant of osmotic pressure
colloid osmotic pressure
-used to describe osmotic effect due to plasma proteins

-plasma proteins are to large to pass through the capillary walls, impermeant, create osmotic pressure that hold fluid in the capillaries
edema
-concentration of plasma protein falls
-tissues swell
-may result from starvation, protein deficient diet or impaired liver
globulins
-36% of plasma proteins
- further divided into alpha, beta , gamma globulins
alpha and beta globulins
-synthesized in the liver
-transport of lipids and fat soluble vitamins
gamma globulins
-produced by lymphatic tissue
-antibody
fibrinogen
-4% of plasma proteins
-functions in blood coagulation
-synthesized in the liver
-largest of the plasma proteins
what are the most important blood gases
oxygen
carbon dioxide
plasma nutrients include:
-amino acids that build proteins
-simple sugars for energy storage
-nucleotides ( DNA, RNA)
-lipids for long term storage of cholestrol
nonprotein nitrogenous substances
molecules that contain nitrogen atoms but are not proteins

includes amino acids, urea, uric acid, creatine and creatinine
where do amino acids come from
protein digestion and amino acid absorption
where do urea and uric acid come from
products of protein and nucleic acid catabolism
what does creatinine result from
metabolism of creatine
electrolytes
absorbed from the intestine or released as by products of cellular metabolism
what are the two most abundant electrolytes
sodium and chloride ions
hemeostasis
stoppage of bleeding
following injury to a vessel, three steps occur in hemostasis, what are the steps
blood vessel spasm
platelet plug formation
blood coagulation
cutting or breaking a small blood vessel stimulates the smooth muscles to contract
vasospasm
can vasospasm completely close the end of a severed vessel
yes
how long does the effect of direct stimulation from vasospasm usually last
30 minutes
what do platelets release and what does it do
serotonin

contracts smooth muscles in the blood vessel walls
serum
plasma minus clotting factors
formation of fibrin
1. damaged tissues release tissue thromnoplastin, initiating a series of reactions in the production of prothrombin activator..requires calcium ions , proteins, phospholipids
prothrombin
prothrombin activator converts into thrombin

thrombin catalyzes a reaction that joins fragments of fibrinogen into long threads of fibrin
what creates the meshwork that entraps blood cells and platelets
fibrin sticks to the exposed surfaces of damaged blood vessels
laboratory tests that evaluate blood coagulation mechanisms
prothrombin time PT
partial thromboplastin time PTT
what do fibroblasts do
-invade blood clots that form in ruptured vessels produces fibrous connective tissue throughout
what does the dissolution of a clot require
-coversion of plasma protein plasminogen into plasmin
what does plasmin do
breaks down fibrin threads
what is a blood clot abnormally forming in a vessel
thrombus
what is a clot that dislodges
embolus
tissue plasminogen activator
medication that restores blocked coronary or cerebral circulation if given within three hours of a heart attack or stroke
urokinase
enzyme produced in kidney cells
atherosclerosis
accumulations of fatty deposits that change arterial linings
agglutination
clumping of red blood cells following a transfusion reaction
hemophilia
-symtoms include severe hemorrhage from minor injury, frequent nosebleeds, blood in urine, intramuscular hematomas
-x chromosome
-more frequently males
-treatment is replacing factor 8
von Willebrand disease
-bleed and bruise easily
-hereditary coagulation disorder
-mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously bleed
Factor V Leiden
inherited susceptibility plus other risk factors

mutation in gene that encodes clotting factor V

just one altered DNA base which changes one amino acid in the clotting factor