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38 Cards in this Set

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The Five-Factor Model (What is)

describes personality, but provides no insight into causes or development of personality

The Five-Factor Model (5 points that make up)

1. Extraversion

2. Neuroticism

3. Openness to experience

4. Agreeableness

5. Conscientiousness


positive emitionality

-outgoing, sociable, friendly, up-beat


negative emotionality

-anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure

Openness to experience

curious, flexible, vivid fantasy, imaginative, unconventional attitudes


sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest



-discipined, well-organized, punctual, dependable (tend to experience less physical illness)

Freud's psychoanalytic theory

focuses on the influence of early childhood experiences, unconscious motives and conflicts, and the methods people use to cope with sexual and aggressive urges

Structure of personality (Freud)

-Id: Pleasure principle

-Ego: Reality Principle

-Superego: Morality


primitive, instictive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle

Pleasure Principle

demands immediate gratification of urges

"If it feels good, do it."

Eat, sleep, sex


decision making compoent of personality that operates according to the reality principle

Reality principle

seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate oulets and situations can be found

- mediates betweend Id's desire for immediate satisfaction and society's rules and expectations


the moral principle component of personality that internalizes his/her society's rules for right and wrong, forming what we normally refer to as "conscience"

3 levels of Awarness

1. Conscious

2. Preconscious

3. Unconscious


What you are aware of at the present moment


Awareness contains material just beneath the surface of awarness that can be easily retrieved


thoughts, memories, and desires you have that you do not realize are there

-Much larger influence on behavior

Conflict (Id vs Ego and Superego)

behavior is the outcome of an ongoing series of internal _______

Defense Mechanisms

unconscious reacitons that protect a person from unpleasant emotions like anxiety or guilt

5 psychosexual stages

1. oral

2. Anal

3. Phallic

4. Latency

5. Genital


a failure to move forward psychologically from one stage to another as expected

- excessive gratification or frustration

Oral stage

Age 0-1

-Mouth (Sucking, biting)

- Weaning

Anal stage

Age 2-3

-Anus (expelling or retaining feces)

- Toilet training

Phallic stage

Age 4-5

- Genitals (masterbating)

- Identifying with adult role models

- coping with Oedipal crisis

Oedipal Complex

Children manifest erotically tinged desires for their opposite sex parent, accompanied by feelings of hostility toward their same sex parent

Latency stage

Age 6-12

- None (sexually repressed)

- Expanding social contacts

Genital stage

Age: Puberty onward

- Genitals (being sexually active)

- Establishing intimate relationships


study only observable behavior

-Personality is explaned by learning

Social Cognitive Theory

extended behaviorism to explain personality by adding an empahsis on cognitive processes

cognitive processes

self-reflecting, self-regulating, and proactive and not just reacting to stimuli

reciprocal determinism

internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence one another

Humanistic Perspective

the belief that every person is a unique individual


emphasizes the unique qulaities of humans, especially their freedom (free will) and potential for personal growth


beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior

-may not be consistent with our experiences


the gap between self-concept and reality


self-concept is resonably accurate with reality

Hierarchy of needs

arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused