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38 Cards in this Set

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The Five-Factor Model (What is)

describes personality, but provides no insight into causes or development of personality

The Five-Factor Model (5 points that make up)

1. Extraversion


2. Neuroticism


3. Openness to experience


4. Agreeableness


5. Conscientiousness

Extraversion

positive emitionality


-outgoing, sociable, friendly, up-beat

Neuroticism

negative emotionality


-anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure

Openness to experience

curious, flexible, vivid fantasy, imaginative, unconventional attitudes



Agreeableness

sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest

Conscientiousness

Constraint


-discipined, well-organized, punctual, dependable (tend to experience less physical illness)

Freud's psychoanalytic theory

focuses on the influence of early childhood experiences, unconscious motives and conflicts, and the methods people use to cope with sexual and aggressive urges

Structure of personality (Freud)

-Id: Pleasure principle


-Ego: Reality Principle


-Superego: Morality

Id

primitive, instictive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle

Pleasure Principle

demands immediate gratification of urges


"If it feels good, do it."


Eat, sleep, sex

Ego

decision making compoent of personality that operates according to the reality principle

Reality principle

seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate oulets and situations can be found


- mediates betweend Id's desire for immediate satisfaction and society's rules and expectations

Superego

the moral principle component of personality that internalizes his/her society's rules for right and wrong, forming what we normally refer to as "conscience"

3 levels of Awarness

1. Conscious


2. Preconscious


3. Unconscious

Conscious

What you are aware of at the present moment

Preconscious

Awareness contains material just beneath the surface of awarness that can be easily retrieved

Unconscious

thoughts, memories, and desires you have that you do not realize are there


-Much larger influence on behavior

Conflict (Id vs Ego and Superego)

behavior is the outcome of an ongoing series of internal _______

Defense Mechanisms

unconscious reacitons that protect a person from unpleasant emotions like anxiety or guilt

5 psychosexual stages

1. oral


2. Anal


3. Phallic


4. Latency


5. Genital

Fixation

a failure to move forward psychologically from one stage to another as expected


- excessive gratification or frustration

Oral stage

Age 0-1


-Mouth (Sucking, biting)


- Weaning

Anal stage

Age 2-3


-Anus (expelling or retaining feces)


- Toilet training

Phallic stage

Age 4-5


- Genitals (masterbating)


- Identifying with adult role models


- coping with Oedipal crisis

Oedipal Complex

Children manifest erotically tinged desires for their opposite sex parent, accompanied by feelings of hostility toward their same sex parent

Latency stage

Age 6-12


- None (sexually repressed)


- Expanding social contacts

Genital stage

Age: Puberty onward


- Genitals (being sexually active)


- Establishing intimate relationships

Behaviorism

study only observable behavior


-Personality is explaned by learning

Social Cognitive Theory

extended behaviorism to explain personality by adding an empahsis on cognitive processes

cognitive processes

self-reflecting, self-regulating, and proactive and not just reacting to stimuli

reciprocal determinism

internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence one another

Humanistic Perspective

the belief that every person is a unique individual

Humanism

emphasizes the unique qulaities of humans, especially their freedom (free will) and potential for personal growth

Self-concept

beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior


-may not be consistent with our experiences

Incongruence

the gap between self-concept and reality

congruence

self-concept is resonably accurate with reality

Hierarchy of needs

arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused