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28 Cards in this Set

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Health Behaviour

Activity people perform to maintain or improve health regardless of health status or if goal is achieved

Types of Health Behaviours

Well behaviour: activity to maintain or improve current good health and avoid illness

Symptom-Based Behaviour: activity ill people do to determine problem and find remedy

Sick-Role Behaviour: activity people do to treat or adjust to health problem after deciding that they are ill and what illness is

Well, symptom-base, sick-role

Successful modification of health behaviours can

Reduce death due to lifestyle

Delay time of death

Expand years of life free from chronic disease

3 outcomes

Health promotion overview

Good health is personal and collective achievement

Health promotion more successful and less costly than disease prevention

2 main ideas

3 things to know about health behaviours

1. Health habits stable but do change over time

2. Protective behaviours not strongly related to one another

3. Protective behaviours not governed by single set of response tendencies or attitudes

Stability of and how habits and protective behaviours are related

Factors influencing health behaviours

Interpersonal factor: whether people around you perform and encourage behaviours (ex. Enablers)

Community factor: whether community encourages behaviours

Socual, personality, and emotional factors: conscientiousness, neuroticism, stress, perception, beliefs, cognition

Interpersonal, personality, community

Barriers to modifying poor health behaviours

Not knowing when to intervene

Instability of health habits

Health behaviours elicited and maintained differently for different peopld

3 barriers

Social influence on health behaviours

Social opinion may motivate good or bad behaviours (ex. Peer pressure)

Health habits strongly affected by early socialization

Peer pressure, social norms

Interventions with at-risk people

Children and adolescents vulnerable; may have genetic risk or precursors

Benefits: effective and efficient, easier to identify other risks

Problems: may not perceive risk correctly, causes worry and restrictive behaviour

Ethical issues: when is it appropriate? May not be successful, may be defensive, may complicate family dynamics

Who is at risk? Benefits, problems, ethical issues

Application of attitude research to health

1. Colorful and vivid (not technical)

2. Communicated by reliable source

3. Strong arguments at beginning and end

4. Short, clear, direct

5. Explicit conclusions

6. Not too extreme

7. (Illness detection behaviours) emphasize problems that may arise

8. Approach orientation: stress benefits; Avoidance orientation: stress risks

9. If receptive, includes only favourable points; if not, discuss both sidez

9 generalizations to improve efficacy

Attitude Change and Health Behaviours

Fear appeals: change behaviour due to fear of consequences

Too much fear, audience pushed into denial or repression

Must change intentions and give information and strategies

May not perceive accurately or be defensive

Fear; info and strategies

Health-Belief Model

Likelihood someone will perform health behaviour depends on 2 assessments:

1. Person perceives personal health threat

2. Person believes behaviour will be effective

Model predicts habits well

Likelihood of behaviours depends on 2 assessments

Health-Belief Model: influencing factors

General health values

Specific beliefs about personal vulnerability

Beliefs about consequences of disorder

3 factors involving personal belief

Health Behaviour Model: will behaviour reduce threat?

Depends on:

If they think behaviour will be effective

If benefits outweigh the cost

Effectiveness and cost

Theory of Planned Behaviour

3 judgements determine persons intention to perform behaviour

1. Attitude towards action (personal belief about outcome)

2. Subjective norms regarding action (what others think)

3. Behavioural control (ability to perform and get indented effect)

3 judgements on if behaviour should be performed

Limitations on attitude change approaches

1. Do not explain spontaneous or long-term change

2. Can be met with defensiveness or minimizing (threat, vulnerability)

3. Complacency

4. Change intention but not enough info/skill to change

5. Each health habit has specific social, psycho, and cultural context

5 limitations

Efforts to prevent illness

Behavioural influence: providing info and demonstrating techniques on health action (brushing and flossing)

Environmental measures: surrounding environment promotes health (flouride in public water supplies)

Preventative medical efforts: procedures to prevent further damage (seeing dentist for cavity fills)

Behaviour, environment, preventative medical efforts

Primary prevention

Actions to avoid disease or injury

Seat belts, public reminders to use seat belts

Secondary prevention

Actions taken to identify and treat illness or injury aiming to stop or reverse problem

Symptom-based behaviour; ex. seeking medical care

Tertiary prevention

Actions taken to contain or retard disease related damage, prevent recurrence or worsening, and rehabilitate patient

Ex. Amputating toe to prevent further infection

Social engineering

Modifying environment to affect peoples ability to practice health behaviour

Ex. Banning drugs

Factors influencing health behaviour

Learning (reinforcement, extinction, punishment)

Psychosocial factors: social relationships, personality, emotional state, perception and cognition

Learning, psychosocial factors

Stages of Change Model

People currently in one stage show diff psychosocial characteristics from people in other stages

Diff stages show diff characteristics

Trans-theoretical model of behaviour

Recognizing what stage people are in and can move around within stages across time

Mixed success


Trans-theoretical model of behaviour change: stages

Pre-contemplation: no intention of changing

Comtemplation: aware of problem, not committed

Preparation: intendngo change but not started

Action: commits time and an energy to change

Maintenance: worknto ptecent relapse

5 stages

Cancer-related health behaviours: breast cancer

Breast cancer levels high (especially over ate 40)

Early detection with mammograms improves survival greatly

Convince women through providing info (brochures, counseling, mail), changing attitudes, theory of planned behaviour


Cancer-related health behaviours: colorectal cancer

Second highest cause of cancerous deaths

Screening is distinctive (polyps instead of malignancies)

Participation predicted by self efficacy, perceived benefits, physicians recommendations, lack of barriers

Colorectal screening

Cancer-related health behaviours: skin cancer

4 fold increase after age 30

Increased 155% in last 20 yrs

Among most preventable cancers

Problem with sunscreen use: tans are desirable, young adults esp. concerned about appearance