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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of the relation between variation in specified characteristics of the physical stimulation and the attributes and magnitude of subjective experience. this would be the relationship between events and things in the ‘world out there’ and the perceptual models and representations ‘in your brain’
Psycho vs. Physics
Events occuring in the physical world are sensed and through neural activity in the brain perceived. What we perceive is not always entirely accurate.
Range vs. Resolution
"AKA detection and difference
Methods to measure DECTECTION are used to define the RANGE of a particular sensory system. The first part of Chapter 2 presents several methods we might use to make this determination.
The last part of Chapter 2 discusses methods to measure the resolution of a sensory system. The resolution of sensory systems can be shown graphically in a nice way – See Fig 2.10. See the line for‘Brightness’
shortcuts that save neurons; do not resemble what is happening in outside world.
in many ways, directly reflects outside world (only vision shape and touch perceive this way)
‘Labeled Line’
need a receptor for each stimulus value or can't sense (audition, touch, pain/temp)
‘Across Fiber
receptors are broadly tuned to multiple signals, i.e. 3 color receptors
The structure and function of neurons
Dendrites - receiving end; Axon hillock - decision center, electrical signal; Axon, axon terminals - sending end, neurotransmitter
Neurons and neurotransmitters
neurons have only one neurotransmitter to send so the decision is never which to send, it is simply YES - send it or NO - don't send it
how ions (K+, Na+, Cl-) are used to generate
K+ Potassium (some cases, a NO vote), Cl- Chloride (many cases, NO vote), Na+ Sodium (many cases, YES vote), Ca++ Calcium (not important for electrical)
Neuron Voltage
low -70mV because action potentials are regenerative but regeneration takes time
Resting state of cell
Inside usually carry negative charge naturally without ions; Sodium and chloride channels are closed; Potassium channels are open
Resting potential
Inside usually carry negative charge naturally without ions; Sodium and chloride channels are closed; Potassium channels are open
Synaptic Potential
1. Neurotransmitter attaches and opens a transmitter-gated channel: a. Na+ open YES (excitatory), b. Cl- opens NO (inhibitory); 2. Ion changes charge of cell and may begin action potential
Action Potential
1. Axon’s voltage-gated channels respond to the charge (about -50mV needed to open): a. Voltage opens, time closes (refractory period); 2. Na+ in sends K+ out (cell approaches Na+ equilibrium); 3. Na+/K+ pump restores ion concentrations; 4. Action potential passes down chain of axon
Myelin and why it is that neurons can operate at such low voltages
Layers of fat wrapped around axon that increase the speed of the neural impulse allowing it to travel all the way down the axon without letting any charge escape through top or bottom
Why is Ca++ important?
Initiates the chemical reaction; required for neurotransmitters to release (either naturally or through drugs but without neurons snooze)
What do individual neurons do, and how are they used to sense and represent stimuli in the environment?
Neurons are sensory transducers; they say Yes/No/Mo' ; stimuli encoded as 2D maps; sheets of receptors make up maps
Functional architecture of the vertebrate CNS and of sensory pathways (from 2D sheets of receptors to 2D cortical maps)
pattern processing, motor control, memory, emotions, future plans, personality
thalamus (relay/gateway to telen.) & hypothalamus (regulatory center)
object localization
movement, balance, posture
heart rate, breathing
spinal cord
‘Important Sub-Regions of the Telencephalon’ - functions associated with each sub-region and know the functions associated with layers 4,5,6 of cortex.
see handouts
basal ganglia
maintains telencephalon
involved in the complex processes of forming, sorting, and storing memories
Differences between brain regions that answer ‘where’ the stimulus is vs. ‘what’ the stimulus is.
Telencephalon answers WHAT is the object? Midbrain answers WHERE is the object?
characterization of sound waves by the number of cycles of pressure changes completed in a second, usually specified in units called Hertz (Hz) (physical side of pitch)
a general term that refers to the magnitude of the physical energy stimulating an organ (physical side of loudness)
the acoustic dimension of sound produced by vibrating bodies that do not vibrate at a single frequency. The psychological dimension of the resultant complex waveform is termed timbre. (physical side of timbre)
the psychological attribute of a tone that is described as high or low. Pitch is primarily mediated by the frequency of the tone (psychological side of frequency)
the attribute of an auditory sensation in which tones are ordered from soft to loud. Loudness is primarily determined by the amplitude of a sound wave (psychological side of intensity)
an attribute of auditory sensation that corresponds to the physical complexity of a tone (psychological side of complexity)
How does ‘noise cancellation’ work?
a technical means of canceling repetitive noise (created by a complex sound wave by generating and identical sound wave that is 180° out of phase
How do ‘density’ and contribute to our perception of sound?
a tonal quality that refers to the compactness or tightness of a sound. Generally, greater density occurs with higher-frequency tones.
How do ‘volume’ and contribute to our perception of sound?
a tonal quality that refers to the size and expansiveness of a tone. Various combinations of frequency and intensity produce different volumes
How do ‘dissonance’ and contribute to our perception of sound?
in audition, those combinations of tones that sound discordant or harsh
How do ‘consonance’ and contribute to our perception of sound?
in audition, those combinations of tones that appear to blend well and sound pleasant together
What is Fourier Analysis and what does it have to do with audition?
the breakdown of a complex waveform into its component simple sine waves based on the mathematical theorem devised by the nineteenth-century French scientist Jean Baptiste Fourier
What is Fourier Synthesis and what does it have to do with audition?
the physical construction of a complex waveform from a series of simple sine waves
What is a ‘Frequency Spectrogram’ and why is it useful for understanding how sound is coded by the auditory system?
a graphic reproduction of the frequency spectrum, intensity, and duration of a pattern of acoustic signals
Your knowledge of the basic structure and function of the human auditory system, from outer, to middle, to inner ear.
Know what is happening in each region, and how: outer, middle, inner ear
outer ear acts as amplifier, collects sound waves; air in external auditory canal compresses and becomes more dense
In other words, know the sequence of events that begins with vibrating air and ends with Na+ channels being opened on the tips of inner hair cells.
basiliar membrane "
a membrane on which lies the hair cells of the organ of Corti
tectorial membranes"
membrane extending along the top of the organ of Corti; outer hair cells bring tectorial membrane in closer in order to amplify sound; useful in 'tuning in'