• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
lobes/lobules of breast
~15-20 lobes and 20-40 lobules per breast
lactiferous duct
drains milk from each lobe onto surface of nipple
muscles forming floor of the breast
pec major and minor, serratus anterior, lat dorsi, subscapularis, external oblique, and rectus abdominus
vascular supply to breast
branches of internal mammary artery and lateral thoracic artery
most of the bulk of the breat
subQ and retromammary fat that surrounds glandular tissue
5 segments of berast
upper inner and outer, lower inner and outer, tail of spence
circular and longitudinal smooth muslce fibers of nipple epithelium
induced by tactile, sensory, or autonomic stimuli-erection of nipple and causes lactiferous ducts to empty
breast development
more protein and minerals than mature milk; milk replaces in 2-4 days (surge in prolactin, decrease estrogen, stimulation of sucking)
peau d'oragne appearance of skin
thickened with enlarged proes and accentuated skin markings; indicates edema caused by blocked lymph drainage or inflammatory carcinoma
Five D's related to nipples
Discharge, Depression/inversion, Discoloration (pregnancy), Dermatologic changes (Paget disease), Deviation
seated with arms over head or flexed behind neck can reveal
adds tension to suspensory ligaments, accentuates dimples, and may reveal variations in contour and symmetry
seated with hands pressed against hips with shoulders rolled forward
contracts pec muscles-deviations in contour and symmetry
seated and leaning forward from waist
tension in suspensory ligaments; assess contour and symmetry of large breasts
characterizations of mass in breast
location, size, shape, consistency, tenderness, mobility, delineation of borders, and retraction
characteristics of concern with nipple discharge
unilateral and from a single duct
breast tissue of adolescent female
homogenous, dense, firm, and elastic
montgomery tubercles
raised sebaceous glands on areaola
clogged duct in lactating women
creates tender spot on breast that may feel lumpy and hot; frequent nursing/expression along with application of heat will help to open duct
benign tumors composed of stromal and epithelial elements that represent a hyperplastic or proliferative process in a single terminal ducatl unit; asymptomatic and do not change with cycle
assocaited findings of malignant breast tumor
mass or thickening of breast; marked asymmetry; prominent veins unilaterally; discolorations; peau d' orange; ulcerations; dimpling; puckering; retraction of skin/areola; fixed inversion or deviation in position of nipple; crusting or erosion of nipple/areola; change in surface characteristics (moles/scars)
fat necrosis
response to local injury; firm, irregular mass, often appearing as area of discoloration
intraductal papillomas and papillomatosis
benign 2-3 cm tumors of subareolar ducts; single or multiple; common cause of serous/bloody nipple discharge
paget disease
surface manifestation of underlying ductal carcinoma; red, scaling, crusty patch forms on nipple, areola, and surrounding skin
paget disease vs eczema
appears eczematous, but may occur unilaterally and doesn't respond to steroids
adult men gynecomastia causes
hormone imbalance, testicular, pituitary, or hormone secreting tumors, liver failure, antihypertensive meds
retention cysts
inflammation of sebaceous glands in the areola; may be tender and suppurative
lactation not associated with childbith occurs with
drugs (phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, some antihypertensive agents, estrogens), prolactin-secreting tumors, pituitary tumors, hypothyroidism, Cushings, and hypoglycemia
most causes of mastitis are
staph, ususally S aureus
mammary duct ectasia
subareolar ducts become blocked with desquamating secretory epithelium, necrotic debris, and chronic inflammatory cells; often bilateral; usually menopausal women
discharge in mammary duct ectasia
spontaneous, sticky, multicolored, and from multiple ducts