• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Pro of BMI?

The BMI better reflects the amount of body fat (compared to weight from muscle or bone) than weightfor-heightmeasurements.

What is the weight age?

Age at which the patient's weight would plot at the 50th percentile.

What is the height age?

Age at which the patient's height would plot at the 50th percentile.

Core symptoms of ADHD?

  • Inattention
  • Hyperactivity
  • Impulsivity

Prevelance of ADHD?


Diagnosis of ADHD?


What are the important causes of school failure?

  • sensory impairment
  • sleep disorder
  • mood disorder
  • learning disability
  • conduct disorder

What are the red flags for risk of learning disability?

  • hx of maternal illness or substance use during pregnancy
  • complications at time of delivery
  • hx of meningitis or other serious illness
  • history of serious head trauma
  • parental hx of learning disabilities or difficulty at school

Some adverse effects of ADHD meds?

  • appetite suppression
  • tic disorders
  • insomnia
  • decrease in growth velocity

Which children, who are on ADHD meds, have an increased CV risk?

children with known heart disease

Which children, who are on ADHD meds, personality changes?

Excessive dosing

What percentage of children with ADHD respond to stimulant meds such as sustained released methylphenidate?


What percentage of children are obese?

15% of 6 to 19 year olds

Risk factors for obesity?

  • high birth weight
  • maternal diabetes
  • obese parent
  • obese parentS
  • lower socioeconomic status
  • genetic syndromes

What genetic syndromes are associated with obesity?

  • Prader-Willi
  • Bardet Biedl
  • Cohen syndrome

List the main complications of obesity?

sleep apnea



slipped capital femoral epiphysis

Type 2 DM


Sleep apnea features

cessation of breathing 15+ seconds

loud snore

laboured breathing

Dyslipidemia features

High triglycerides

low HDL

metabolic syndrome

HTN associations

frequent in overweight kids

1/3 of children with BMI > 95th percentile

SCFE features?

  • onset of puberty
  • obese patients
  • delayed sexual maturation
  • antalgic gait
  • limited ROM of hip

Type 2 DM


Steatohepatitis features

obese adolescents

mild increase in liver transaminases

hyperechoic liver on US

fatty infiltrates and fibrosis on biopsy

What percentage of all cases in childhood are type 2 DM?


DM classification?

by etiology

Type 1 DM classification?

insulin deficiency, due to autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells

Type 2 DM classification?

  • more heterogeneous but typically involves insulin resistance
  • Type 2 DM has been recognized in children only recently. Although the data regarding incidence isinexact, the trend for Type 2 DM, like that of childhood obesity, is clearly rising.

Diagnosis of diabetes?

  • HbA1c >/= 6.5%
  • OR
  • fasting >/= 7
  • OR
  • 2 hr OGTT 11
  • in symptoms of hyperglycemia, >/= 11

Presentation of DM?

  • weight loss
  • DKA rare
  • accidental diagnosis by routine screen
  • type I more likely to present in early childhood

DM in children, risks?

  • overweight
  • FHx of Type 2 DM
  • race/ethnicity
  • signs of insulin resistance or conditions associated with insulin resistance
  • maternal history of diabetes or gestational dm

How to classify HTN in children?

By BP percentile

Prehypertension (children) BP percentile?

90-95th percentile

Stage 1 HTN (children) BP percentile?

95th-99th plus 5 mm Hg

Stage 2 HTN (children) BP percentile?

> 99th plus 5 mm Hg

Adolescent HTN?

BP > 120/80 mm Hg

Adolescent pre HTN?

< 95th percentile

endocrine disease that cause weight gain?

these usually limit growth and lead to short stature

only 1% are overweight patients have endocrine problems

How to address obesity in children?

  • inquire if weight is a concern for the parent or child
  • talk about immediate and long term effects

What are some causes of high BP measurements?

  • "white coat" hypertension
  • position
  • painful stimuli

Proper placement of BP cuff?

  • 2/3 of upper arm covered
  • internal bladder should encircle 80-100% of the arm circumference

Screening for secondary HTN in children?

  • umbilical arteral or venous access
  • UTI
  • catecholamine excess
  • family history of renal disease
  • coarctation of aorta

How does UTI cause HTN?

renal scarring following infection

Two diseases where catecholamine excess lead to HTN?

  • pheochromocytoma
  • neuroblastoma

What to look on during exam for coarctation of aorta?

  • femoral pulses
  • document BP in lower extremity

How to evaluate HTN?

blood pressure monitoring

diet: low salt, decrease intake of high sodium foods (e.g. fast foods, Chinese foods, and salty snack foods)

Management of prehypertension?

  • lifestyle change
  • BP follow up in 6 mo

Management of primary HTN?

  • Meds
  • Dietary changes
  • weight loss
  • physical activity

How to initially treat ADHD?

  • start a medication
  • monitor for efficacy
  • additional consults

Weight management plan with family, what factors to address?


Screen time

physical activity

Diet recommendations for weight management?

low cal snacks

sugar free beverages

Screen time recommendations for weight management?

  • 2 hours a day, max
  • no tv in bedroom

Physical activity recommendations?

60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity a day