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46 Cards in this Set

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The fear of other races. Led to lots of racism in United States. In California, it was taken out against Blacks (Gordon Chase), Hispanics (Baditos), Natives (paid killings), and Asian populations.
Public policy should favor the Native born instead of the immigrant. Big deal when discussing Chinese immigration in California.
Murder of Gordon Chase
1852; Chase was black SF barber. White man stole from his sisters shop, Chase chases the white man, white man goes to Chase's shop and shoots him, arrested and put on trial. Witness (Cowels, mulatto) cannot testify because of the Testimony Law of 1850. Cowels dismissed and murderer went free.
Testimony Law of 1850
No black, mulatto, or native can testify in favor or against a white man. 1/16th in mulatto. Important in murder of Gordon Chase.
San Francisco Franchise League
Black organization that hired lawyers and had petitions to repeal the Testimony Law. 1863 blacks could give testimony but natives could not. 1872 totally repealed.
Juanita of Downville
1851. Mexican woman who lived with her miner husband. Another drunk miner tried to rape her and she stabbed him in self defense. She was arrested and ordered to be hung. Jumped off bridge herself out of shame. Example of Mexican Whore stereotype in early California.
Joaquin Murieta
1853; example of Mexican Bandit stereotype. He started a huge crime wave but nobody actually witnessed. State legislature gave large reward for hispanic man named Juanquin. Harry Love found someone named Juanquin +3 finger jack, cut off the head and had it pickled. The head was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake.
Land Law of 1851
All Californios holding land grants had to go before Board of Land Commissioners within 2 years to prove they held title to the land. This was in response to squatters demanding they owned the grantees land. Most of the land ended up in the hands of lawyers. 17 years for average case.
Board of Land Commissioners
3 Amercian judges who decided whether the Californios held title to their land. 800 cases, 600 favored californios.
An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians
Passed 1850. Had three parts: Vagrancy Clause, Bail out clause, and Apprentice Clause. Essentially turned Natives into a slave class.
Vagrancy Clause
Part of An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians. A Native walking around in idleness could be arrested.
Bail Out Clause
Part of An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians. If a native had been arrested, a rancher could bail them out and they had to work for the rancher until the rancher was satisfied.
Apprentice Clause
Part of An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians. An Indian mother could apprentice her children to a white land holder. The children were used as servants until they were 18 if a woman and 20 if a man.
Theodore Judah
An engineer who wanted to build a RR between Sacramento and Fulsome. Discovered that you could build through the Sierras but needed funding. Ended up getting $600 each from The Big Four. Got 200 million back.
The Big Four
Ran the railroad in Central Pacific RR in CA. Colis P Huntington, Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins, and Leland Stanford.
Colis P Huntington
Led the Big Four. He acted as puppet master in the Vice President position of the RR. Most hated man in CA.
Charles Crocker
Actually constructed the RR. Biggest of the Big 4. Charles Crocker Construction Company.
Mark Hopkins
Treasurer of the Big 4. Accountant. Had mansion on Nob Hill that was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake.
Leland Stanford
President of the RR. Governor and Senator of CA. Found Stanford University.
Pacific Railroad Acts of 1862 and 1864
The Federal Government gave RRs low interest loans based on how much track they laid. Also supported massive land grants (20 miles of each side of the track) Became largest land holders in US.
Battle of Mussel Slogh
Riot at Mussel Slough over RRs selling farmers land out from under them. Had promised to sell land for 2.50 an acre in central valley, but then decided to sell for more because land was improved. 7 died, but RR eventually came down in price.
Foreign Miner's Tax of 1852
$3 a month tax on Chinese. Designed to make money. Companies would pay and then add money to Chinese worker's tickets. In 1870s the economy tanked, chinese were blamed because they worked too hard.
Dennis Kearney
Guy who rallied the working class, attacked corporations, and blamed problems on Chinese and Railroads. Formed the Workingman's Party of CA.
Workingman's Party of California
Formed by Dennis Kearney. "The Chinese must go". Tried to harass they Chinese so they would leave.
Breathing Space Ordinance
Everyone in an apartment had to have 500 cubic feet of breathing space. Chinese lived in small apartments and sometimes would get raided by police.
Queue Ordinace
Anyone who was arrested would have their queue cut off. Gangs formed to cut off queues and the police looked the other way.
Laundry Cart Ordinance
If you worked in the laundry business and didn't have a horse you were forced to pay $60/year. Chinese usually did not have horses and were forced out of business.
Pole Ordinace
A law that said it was illegal to carry things on pole. Overturned in the Supreme Court.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
US gov forbid immigration of Chinese workers into US. Only affected Chinese that could compete with white workers. 1902 made permanent until 1943. Had to find merchant to import you as a paper son.
Started around 1900. Wanted to make changes and looked back to what America "used to be".
4 Goals:
1) Correct obvious abuses of power
2) Strengthen the state
3) clean up politics (boss system) Fire hydrants in SF during fire used as example.
4) Rescue the poor (prohibition grew out of this)
Hiram Johnson:elected as progressive governor of CA.
A technique used by progressives that brought problems to light and then passed laws to fix them
Public Utilities Commission
Progressive economic law. Determined how much people can charge for utilities. Headed by 3 people 2, bribed, 1 disappeared. Eventually go its act together and started regulating RRs
If elected officials are no good then 6% can sign a petition and they can be recalled. It then goes to the ballet.
Recall for a law. 6% for petition, then goes to the ballet.
Voters get to make up their own laws. 6% has to sign petition before ballet.
Example of social progressive reform. Headed by women's groups.
California's Peculiar Institution
Used to describe immigrant workers in CA and alludes to slavery in the south. Termed by Carey McWilliams, migrant workers were slave class.
7 reasons why:
1) Non-white aliens, not protected by constitution
2) Poverty stricken
3) Moved around a lot
4) Unskilled labor with a surplus of workers
5) Unions hostile to farm workers
6) Growers very hostile to workers.
Industrial Workers of the World
IWW, Wobblies
1) supported farm workers
2) small but struck fear into capitalists
3) had charter "The working class and the employing class have nothing in common
4) mostly communist
5) Led by Big Bill Haywood
6) wanted everyone to join
7) Wildcat stikes : no working, sudden sitdown
Durst Brother's Wheatland Hops Ranch Riot of 1913.
A riot that happened because the Durst Brothers sent fliers around CA promising high wages, guaranteed employment, and nice camping facilities. All of these were lies. IWW came in and started a riot, 5 people and 3 police killed, national guard called in, 2 leaders arrested and sentenced to life in prison.
Criminal Syndicalism Act of 1919
Said that it was against the law to belong to and organization that accepted violence as a mean to political change. Killed the IWW. Overturned by the black panthers.
Distribution of Wealth
1929 1% owned 60% of all wealther. 87% shared 12%. No middle class, all wealth at top. 60% of families below the poverty line.
New Deal
Plan by FDR to fix the American Economy. Strarted with National Industrial Recovery Act
National Industrial Recovery Act 7A
Workers could organize and bargain collectively.
Wagner Act
Makes it permanent law that workers could organize and bargain collectively
International Longshoreman's Association
Power union, went on strike in 1934 and paralyzed west coast shipping. Owners tried to break the strike, but they formed a picket line.
Bloody Thursday
Ship owners got frat boys from Berkeley to break Longshoreman's picket line. 2 dead, 60 hurt. National guard called in. July 11th, everyone walked off the job. San Francisco shutdown for 4 days. Agreed to binding Federal Law: ILA the bargaining unit, 6 hour work day, wage increase, hiring hauls.