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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

employee behaviour

the pattern of actions by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly

counterproductive behaviour

behaviour that detract from organizational performance

Big five personality traits

OCEAE - Openness, conscientiousness, emotionality, agreeableness, extraversion

what is agreeableness?

high vs low agreeableness

ability to get along with others

high - gentle, cooperative, forgiving, understanding and good natured
low - often irritable, short-tempered, uncooperative and generally antagonistic

what is conscientiousness?

high vs low conscientiousness

refers to the number of things a person tries to accomplish

high: tend to focus on few tasks -> systematic, careful, thorough, responsible and self disciplined
low: pursue a wide array of task -> more disorganized and irresponsible

positive vs negative emotionality

refers to the degree which people tend to be positive or negative

positive: relatively poised, calm, resilient and secure
negative: excitable, insecure, reactive and subject to mood swings

what is extraversion?

high vs low extraversion

person's comfort level with relationships

high: sociable, talkative, assertive and open to establishing new relationships

low: less sociable, talkative and assertive

what is openness?
high vs low openness

reflects how open or rigid a person is in terms of his and her beliefs

high: curious and are willing to listen to new ideas and change their own ideas, beliefs and attitudes

low: tend to be less receptive to new ideas and less willing to change their minds


person's belief about his or her capabilities to perform a task

high: think they can do it

low: don't think they can


a person believes that power and status differences are appropriate within social systems such as organizations

high: take orders from the boss because they are the boss

low: may question or disagree with the boss


behaviour designed to gain power and control

high: rational and nonemotional and may lie to get what they want


extent to which a person believes that he or she is a worthwhile and deserving individual.

high: seek higher-status jobs

risk propensity

degree to which a person is willing to take chances and make risky decisions

job satisfcation

extent to which people hae positive attitudes toward their jobs

organizational commitment

an individual's identification with the organization and its mission

highly committed employees see themselves as true members of the firm, overlook minor sources of dissatisfaction and see themselves as outsiders

psychological contract

set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he or she will contribute to an organization will provide to the employeses

person-job fit

the extent to which a person's contributions and the organizatoin's inducement match one another


set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways

classical theory of motivation

assumes workers are motivated soley by money

Hawthorne effect

the tendency for worker's productivity to incase when they feel they are getting special attention from management

Theory X

belief that people are naturally lazy, irresponsible and uncooperative

Theory Y

belief that people want to be productive because they are naturally energetic, responsible and cooperative

what is positive reinforcement?

applying positive consequences when employees do what the desired behaviour

what is punishment?

applying negative consequences when employees exhibit undesirable behaviours

what is negative reinforcement?

applying negative consequences when employees do the desired behaviour


withold positive consequences when employees exhibit undesirable behaviours

what is goal setting theory?

goal setting theory focuses on setting goals that will motivate employees (SMART goals)

what is management by objectives (MBO)

managers and subordinates in setting goals and evaluating progress (Top to bottom collaborative goal setting)

what is participative management and empowerment?

method of increasing job satisfaction by giving employees a voice in the management of their jobs and company

what is a quality circle?

technique for maximizing quality of production. employees meet often in small teams that define, analyze and solve quality and other process-related problems within the area

what is job enrichment?

adding one or more motivation factors to a job

what are the three ways to enrich jobs?

1. combining tasks

2. forming natural workgroups

3. establishing client relationships

what are some examples of modified work schedules?

1. flextime - allows people to pick their working hours

2. compressed workweeks - employees work fewer days per week but more hours during the day

3. telecommuting - able to do some or all of the work away from the office

4. workshare - allows 2 or more people to share one job

what is leadership?

refers to the process and behaviors used by managers to motivate, inspire and influence subordinates to work towards certain goals

what is reward power?

power to give or withhold rewards like salary, increases, bonuses, promotions, praise and interesting job assignments.
the greater the number of rewards a manager controls, the greater the manager's reward power

what is coercive power?

power to force another person to comply by means of psychological, emotional or physical threat

e.g. threats of written reprimands, demotion, layoffs

what is expert power?

derived from information or expertise that the manager posses

the more important the information and the fewer the people who have access to it, the greater the degree of expert power

what is referent power?

based on identification, imitation, loyalty or charisma of the leader

what is the trait approach?

a leadership approach that focused on identify the essential traits that distinguished leaders

what is the behavioural approach?

a leadership approach that focuses on determining what behaviours are employed by leaders

situational approach to leadership

assumes appropriate leader behaviour varies from one situation to another

what is the path-goal theory of leadership?

suggests that the primary functions of a leader are to make valued or desired rewards available in the workplace and to clarify for the subordinates the kind of behaviours that will lead to these rewards

~ leader clarifies the PATHS to go GOAL attainment

what are the four kinds of behaviour in leaders?

1. directive leader behaviour

2. supportive leader behaviour

3. participative leader behaviour

4. achievement oriented behaviour

what is supportive leader behaviour

they are friendly and approachable, show concern for subordinates' welfare and treat members as equals

what is directive leader behaviour

tells the employees what is expected of them, schedules works and gives guidance

what is achievement-oriented behaviour

sets challenging goals, expects subordinates to perform at high levels, encourage subordinates and shows confidence in subordinate's abilities

what is perceptive leader behaviour?

consulting with subordinates, soliciting suggestions and allowing participation in decision making

what is the decision tree approach?

attempts to prescribe a leadership style that is appropriate in different situations

what is the leader-member exchange model

it focuses on the differential relationships leaders often establish with different suboordinates

what are the different types of leadership?

1. transformational leadership

2. transactional leadership

3. charismatic leadership

what is transformational leadership

set of abilities that allows a leader to recognize the need for change, to create a vision to guide that change, and to execute the change effectively

what is transactional leadership?

involves routine, regimented activities that are necessary during periods of stability

what is charismatic leadership?

type of influence based on the leader's personal charisma

have high level of self confidence and a strong need to influence others