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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Primary Brain Vesicles (developing tube)

Prosencephalon (forebrain)

Mesencephalon (midbrain)

Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

Prosencephalon secondary brain vesicles



Telencephalon adult brain structures

Cerebrum: Cerebral Hemispheres:

- cortex

- white matter

- basal nuclei

Diencephalon adult brain structures


- thalamus

- hypothalamus

- epithalamus


Mesencephalon Secondary brain vesicles

Mesencephalon (brain stem: midbrain)

Rhombencephalon secondary brain vesicles + adult brain structures

Metencephalon (brain stem: pons; cerebellum)

Myencephalon (brain stem: medulla oblongata)

4th ventricle is not part of the rhombencephalon itself but is in this area

CNS Development

Ectoderm and neural tissue (notochord) interact

- forms the neural plate

Neural plate edges fold upward and inward and meet midline

- forms a neural crest and tube

The neural tube 'zips up' from either side until we have closed tube with openings at either end

- lumen in the middle forms the ventricles

- the brain vesicles develop on either side of the neural tube

Clockwise starting on right side:


Trapezoid bodies (part of the pons)

Pyramidal tract (in medulla oblongata)

Spinal cord



dorsal horn = afferent

ventral horn = efferent

1= somatic afferent

2= visceral afferent

3 = visceral efferent

4 = somatic efferent

5 = dorsal root ganglion (afferent neurons from peripheral system)

red circle = central canal

organization of the medulla oblongata/pons

- we now find cranial nerves

in pons: Central canal (7) expands greatly and becomes the 4th ventricle

Tracts take on a different orientation (afferents are more lateral and efferents are more medial)

2 more tracts join

- special visceral afferent

- special sensory afferent

Medulla picture (left):

1 = somatic afferent column

2 = visceral afferent column

3 = visceral efferent column

4 = somatic efferent column

5 = dorsal root

6 = ventral root

7 = central canal

8 = sulcus limitans

9 = basal lamina

10 = alar lamina

Pons (on right)

1 = somatic afferent column

2 = visceral afferent column

3 = special visceral afferent column

4 = visceral efferent column

5/6 = somatic efferent column

7 = nuclie of pons

8 = fourth ventricle


red circles = cerebellar hemispheres

red arrow = 4th ventricle/choroid plexus

1 = vermis

3 = vasciculus gracilis and cuneatus

4 = gracile and cuneate nuclei

11 = pyramidal tracts

red arrow = transverse fissure

AKA tentorum cerebelli

- fold of the dura mater between the cerebrum and cerebellum

- falx cerebri (fold of dura mater) is between the two sides of the cerebrum

red arrows clockwise:


4th ventricle

medulla oblongata


Rhombencephalon with cerebellum removed (dorsal view)

red line on left: median sulcus of 4th ventricle

Right (top to bottom):

- rostral peduncle
- middle peduncle

- caudal peduncle

What are peduncles?

Roots (pairs) that attach cerebellum to medulla beneath it

- transmit various nerve structures to and from the pons and medulla

Rostral peduncle: most efferent parts of the cerebellum

Middle peduncle: receive afferent, connected to pons

Caudle peduncle: redceive afferent, connected to medulla

Medulla Oblongata functions

Involved in Autonomic and Visceral systems

Contains nuclei of cranial nerves involved in:

breathing (CN#10 - Vagus nerve)

taste (CN#11 - Glossopharyngeal nerve)

Pons functions

"Bridge" between hind brain and higher centres in mesencephalon and telencephalon

Contains nuclei of cranial nerves involved in:

hearing (CN#8 - vestibulocochlear nerve)

facial expressions (CN#7 - facial nerve)

facial sensation (CN#5 - trigeminal nerve)

Cerebellum functions

Coordination of posture, balance, proprioception

*DOES NOT initiate these, but regulates and coordinates them

4th ventricle functions

CSF production (choroid plexus)

gateway into subarachnoid space

Mesencephalon adult features

Tectum - Colliculi

Mesencephalic aqueduct

Tegmentum - CN nuclei

Crus cerebri (most ventral)


1 = Tectum (2 colliculi)

2 = Tegmentum (CN Nuclei)

3 = Crus cerebri

4 = mesencephalic aqueduct (CSF, connects 3rd and 4th ventricles)

5 = oculomotor nucleus (CN#3)

6 = red nucleus

7 = substantia nigra

8 = locus coeruleus

Mesencephalon with cerebellum removed

Top red arrow:

rostral colliculus - related to optic pathways to and from eyes to occipital lobe

Bottom red arrow:

caudal colliculus - related to auditory pathway

Red arrow on right side: crus cerebri = "cross"

* only thing we can see on outside of mesencephalon

- is a connection between telencephalon and brain stem

- origin of CN#3 (oculomotor - visceral efferent and somatic efferent nerves related to the eye)


Red arrows clockwise, starting top right

- Hypothalamus

- Mamillary bodies (connect hippocampus to other parts of the brain)

- Spinal Cord

- Cerebellum

- Cerebrum

- Infundibulum (attaches pituitary gland AKA hypophysis to the brain)

Major parts:

- Thalamic areas

- 3rd ventricle (not technically part of brain tissue but found in this area)

- retina/CN#2(optic)

Formation of Diencephalon

Formation of Diencephalon

- Two portions of neural tube merge toward each


- a bridge is formed between both sides of the thalamus (= interthalamic adhesion)

- this creates an upper and lower portion of the 3rd ventricle and divides the thalamus into 3 regions

Epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus (top to bottom)


Red arrows clockwise starting at top:


Epiphysis (pineal gland)

Mamillary body

Hypophysis (pituitary gland)

Tuber Cinereum (infundibulum)

Interthalamic adhesion

*Epithalamus contains the epiphysis (pineal gland)

*Hypothalamus contains the hypophysis (pituitary gland) and the mamillary body

#3 = corpus callosum (telencephalon)

Epithalamus function

Contains the Epiphysis (pineal gland)

- Circadian rhythms

Thalamus functions

integrates all sensory info from body and special senses to cortex, EXCEPT from olfactory bulb

*nuclei relay the info to the cortex

Lateral geniculate nuclei: optic info

medial geniculate nuclei: auditory info

Also involved in sleep/wakefulness

Hypothalamus functions

Contains the Hypophysis (pituitary gland) = master gland of endocrine control

- secretes hormones that control parts of the endocrine system

Contains the mamillary bodies

- connection between hippocampus and amygdala - involved in memory formation

3rd ventricle functions

makes CSF

*not part of diencephalon brain tissue but is located in this area

Phylogenetic brains

A = fish

B = reptile

C = bird

D = mammal

E = human

1 = telencephalon

2 = mesencephalon

3'/3" = metencephalon

3' = archicerebellum

3" = neocerebellum

4 = myelencephalon

5 = spinal cord


The Cerebrum itself

Divided into two hemispheres by longitudinal fissure (contains falx cerebri - folds of dura mater from roof of cranium toward the floor of the cranial cavity)

pallium = cortex

- covered with folds (sulci) and gyri(ridges) - (increase surface area for greater neuronal connectivity and complexity)

Corpus callosum - connects the two hemispheres

enlarged cortex is unique to mammals and supports high level cognitive functioning

3 portions of the pallium

Pallium = cortex

Paleopallium = olfactory bulbs and piriform bulbs

Neopallium = cerebral hemispheres

Archipallium = cingulate, hippocampal formation

- can't really distinguish this one but it is between the two hemispheres

Basal Nuclei

Part of telencephalon

nucleus = collection of neuronal cell bodies

basal ganglia = collection of nuclei

Function: initiation and regulation of motor control

3 basal nuclei:

- Caudate nucleus

- Lentiform nucleus

- Amygdala

Identify the basal nuclei

Identify the basal nuclei

Caudate nucleus = #3

Lentiform Nucleus = #6, 6'

Amygdala = #7

#2 = corpus callosum



Neopallium = cortex

Part of telencephalon

1 = frontal lobe - executive functions and motor function

2 = parietal lobe - spatial and sensory function

3 = occipital lobe - visual functions

4 = temporal lobe - association cortex, auditory functions


5 = olfactory bulb/piriform lobe



Areas of the telencephalon

- Arches around various other structures

A = lateral view

B = right caudolateral view

C = positions of corpus callosum (I) and thalamus (II)

1 = supracallosal and cingulate gyri

2 = hippocampus

3 = fornix

4 = commissure of fornix

5 = hypothalamus with mamillary body

a = input from medial olfactory tract

b = input from piriform lobe

c = output to mamillothalamic tract

d = output to brain stem

Identify parts of the archipallium

Identify parts of the archipallium

8 = cingulate gyri

8' = supracollasal gyri

7 = fornix (cut off at the top)

Arterial supply to the brain

Done by the cerebral arterial ring

- receives main sources from lower down in body (left and right internal carotids, come up through the head from the neck)

- single basilar artery runs up spinal column

*they anastamose and form the ring

Important branches of the Cerebral arterial ring

Rostral, middle and caudal cerebral arteries

*rostral meet in middle to form rostral part of the ring

*middle provide to the temporal lobe and other structures in brain

*caudal goes deep into the brain

More caudal branches are rostral and caudal cerebellar arteries

Receives important contribution from vertebral artery

Name the important arteries of the Cerebral arterial ring

Name the important arteries of the Cerebral arterial ring

#5 - left and right internal carotids

#11 - single basilar artery

#2 - rostral cerebral artery

#4 - middle cerebral artery

#7 - caudal cerebral artery

#8 - rostral cerebellar artery

#10 - caudal cerebellar artery

#13 - vertebral artery

Not part of ring but important:

#12 - ventral spinal artery

Venous drainage of brain

Drainage is done via sinuses

1) Dorsal sagittal sinus (drains CSF via villi)

2) Transverse sinus (meets with dorsal sagittal, runs along back of tentorum cerebelli)

3) Straight sinus (unpaired, goes deep into brain and drains parts like the midbrain)

4) Cavernous sinus (rostral end of skull, contributions from ophthalmic veins)

5) Basilar (petrosal) sinus (unpaired)

all of these collect and drain into internal jugular vein

- exit jugular foramen in the skull

Name these!

Name these!

1 - opthalmic veins

2 - cavernous sinus

3 - basilar (petrosal) sinus

4 - dorsal sagittal sinus

5 - straight sinus

6 - transverse sinus

7 - internal jugular vein