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37 Cards in this Set

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Sry Gene

A gene on the Y-chromosome that triggers the release of sry protein, which in turn stimulates the development of testees

Sry Protein

Protein that causes the medulla of each primordial gonad to develop into a testis

Down syndrome

Disorder associated with presence of an extra chromosome 21/ resulting in disfigurement and mental retardation

Williams Syndrome

neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe mental retardation, accompanied by preserved language and social skills

Autism

Neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by (1) a reduced ability to interpret the emotions and intentions of others (2) a reduced capacity for social interaction and communication (3) a preoccupation with a single subject or activity

Punch Drunk Syndrome

The dementia and cerebral scarring that results from repeated concussions

Meningiomas

Tumors that grow between the meninges

Epileptic Aura

Psychological symptoms that precede the onset of convulsions

Encephalitis

inflammation associated with brain infection

Parkinson's disease

movement disorder that is associated with degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway

Huntington's Disease

A progressive terminal disorder of motor and intellectual function that is produced in adulthood by a dominant gene

Multiple Sclerosis

Progressive disease that attacks the myelin of axons in the CNS

Concussion

Disturbance of consciousness following a blow to the head with no cerebral bleeding or obvious structural damage

Thrombuses

Blockage of blood flow from a plug (a thrombus)at the site of its formations

Emboluses

Blockage of blood flow in a smaller blood vessel by a plug that was formed by in a larger blood vessel and carried by the bloodstream to the smaller one

Alzheimer's Disease

The major cause of dementia in old age, characterized by neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid plaques, and neuron loss

Stroke

Sudden-onset cerebrovascular disorders that cause brain damage

Anorexia Nervosa

eating disorder that is characterized by a pathological fear of obesity and that results in health-threatening weightloss

Appetizer effect

increase in hunger that is produced by the consumption of small of palatable food

Positive incentive value of food

the anticipated pleasure associated with a particular action, such as taking a drug (or eating)

Bulimia Nervousa

Eating disorder that is characterized by recurring cycles of fasting, bingeing, and purging without dangerous weight loss

Prader-willi syndrome

neural developmental disorder that is characterized by insatiable appetite and exceptionally slow metabolism

Types of energy

Lipids: Fats



Amino acids: The building blocks and breakdown products of proteins



Glucose: simple sugar that is the breakdown product of complex carbohydrates; body's primary directly usable source of energy

Recuperation theories

Theories based in the premise that being awake disturbs the bodys homeostasis and the function of sleep is to restore it

Adaptaion theories

Theories of sleep based on the premise that sleep evolved to protect organisms from predation and accidents and to conserve their energy, rather than to fulfill some particular need

Activation-synthesis theory of dreaming

theory that dream content reflects the cerebral cortex's inherent tendency to make sense of, and give form to, the random signals it receives form the brain stem during rem sleep

Hypersomnia

Disorders characterized by excessive sleep or sleepiness

Sleep Apnea

Condition in which in which sleep is repeatedly disturbed by momentary interruptions in breathing

Embryonic Stem Cells


Neural plate cells are often referred to as embryonic stem cells, neural plate cells are limited to becoming one of the range of mature nervous system cells
3 layers :


Ectoderm (outermost)



Mesoderm (middle)



Endoderm (innermost)


Types of Neural Death


Necrosis - Passive cell death


Apoptosis - active cell death



Apoptosis is safer than necrosis – does not promote inflammation


Types of tumors

Meningioma's - encased in meninges


Metastic - originate elsewhere, usually the lungs

Closed-head injuries

Brain injuries due to blows that do not penetrate the skull – the brain collides with the skull


Contrecoup injuries – contusions are often on the side of the brain opposite to the blow


Contusions – closed-head injuries that involve damage to the cerebral circulatory system; hematoma (bruise) forms


Concussions – when there is disturbance of consciousness following a blow to the head and no evidence of structural damage



Types of Seizures

Convulsions – motor seizures


Grand mal - Loss of consciousness and equilibrium


Petit mal - Not associated with convulsions


A disruption of consciousness associated with a cessation of ongoing behavior


The Set-Point Assumption


Hunger is a response to an energy need; we eat to maintain an energy set point

Taste Humans prefers

Sweet and fatty foods = high energy


Salty = sodium-rich


When People feel hungry

We tend to feel hungry at meal time

Stages of sleep (and sleep waves)

Four stages:


Alpha Waves- eyes closed preparing to sleep


k complex and sleep spindles -


Delta waves