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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Properties of Water
1. Water is polar
2. Hydrogen bonds
Why is water polar?
- Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen
- Shared electrons spend more time around the oxygen (O slightly negative and H slightly positive)
Properties of Water's hydrogen bonds
- Charge attraction (H+ attracted to O-)
- Each water molecule can form a maximum of 4 hydrogen bonds
Consequences of Water's Polarity
A. Strong cohesive and adhesive properties
B. Moderates the temperature of the Earth
C. Oceans and lakes don't freeze from the bottom-up
D. Solvent properties
- H-bonds cause water molecules to stick together
- Upward transport of water in plants
H-bonds to vessel walls counteracts gravity
- Water has a high surface tension
Ways Water moderates the temperature of the Earth
1. Water stabilizes air temperatures
2. Evaporative cooling
How does water stabilize air temperatures?
- Absorbs heat from warmer air
- Releases heat to cooler air

Due to high specific heat: water can absorb or release relatively large amounts of heat with only a slight change in its own temperature
Water resists changes in temperature (Yes/No)
How does water have high specific heat?
Hydrogen bonds:
- Heat must be absorbed to break hydrogen bonds
- Heat is released when hydrogen bonds form
What is the result of water's high specific heat?
A large body of water acts as a heat sink.
- it absorbs heat from the sun and releases it at night and during winter
What is evaporative cooling?
Liquid -> Gas
vaporization or evaporization
Evaporative cooling is due to?
High heat of vaporization (caused by H-bonds)
Evaporative cooling moderates climate by:
- absorbing heat in the tropics
- releasing heat when it rains
Evaporative cooling moderates the temperature of animals:
Liquid evaporates at the skin
- most energetic molecules leave
- lower kinetic molecules remain
- surface is cooler
Why don't oceans and lakes freeze from the bottom-up?
Water is less dense as a solid than as a liquid.
Why is water less dense as a solid than as a liquid?
Liquid water: H-bonds are continually breaking and forming (water molecules can get close together)
Ice: H-bonds no longer break and reform (water molecules are locked at a fixed distance)
Ice is about how much lighter than liquid water?
10% less dense
Ice floats in liquid water (Yes/No)
Yes. This prevents deep bodies of water from freezing bottom-up.
Solvent properties of water (define)
Water is a versatile solvent
- due to its polarity
- forms hydrogen bonds with polar and charged covalent molecules (e.g. NaCl)
Water surrounds individual ions, separates and shields them from one another
Hydrophilic (define)
has an affinity for water
e.g. ionic and polar substances
Hydrophobic (define)
has no affinity for water
e.g. non-ionic and nonpolar

Thus, water cannot form H-bonds