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34 Cards in this Set

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dissecting microscope
Allows examination of organisms or objects large enough - usually greater than 1.0 mm - to be visually detected without magnification, but too small to see fine surface details or features.
Shines light onto an object (reflecting).
Advantages: objects can be viewed whole, there is room to manipulate the object
compound light microscope
Used to see cells, parts of cells, or organisms that are too small to be seen without magnification.
Objects range from 100 nm to 1.0 mm (large, subcecullar organelles, microorganisms).
Light shines through an object (transmitting).
Advantages: allows specimen to be viewed at a much high resolution than that of a dissecting scope.
primary literature
Peer-reviewed, original research-reviewed by experts to make sure the methods/analyses are acceptable.
Sections: Abstract, Into, Methods, Results, Discussion, Literature Cited
Technical, written for limited audiences (other scientists
secondary literature
Peer-review, NOT original research.
Synthesizes ideas/data from many papers to draw attention to areas where more research is need or to highlight what we have learned about a topic.
No methods, results sections.
Technical, written for limited audiences (other scientists).
popular literature
Not peer-reviewed, not original research.
Written by journalists for the general public, people who may not be scientists.
A possible answer to a question, or a possible solution to a problem. Must be testable and falsifiable!
A statement that describes an observed pattern in nature. States a generalization about nature. Examples: evolution and gravity.
Explanation of how/why observed pattern occurred. Explains an observed pattern, has some validity as a law. We never say something is "proven" in science.
Null Hypothesis (H0)
the hypothesis that claims that the experimental variable had no effect
alternative hypothesis (HA)
the hypothesis supporting the other possible outcome for the experiment. Experimental variable caused a "significant difference in the experimental outcome
Observational investigations
in nature, not manipulating. The Human Genome Project.
experimental investigations
manipulating, often in a lab. The sowbug experiment.
control group
contains all the necessary elements for the experiment to run. Produces observations to compare to the experimental findings.
experimental group
identical to the control group except for one variable (experimental variable)
independent variable
those variables that are not controlled by any other factor; aka experimental variable (x-axis); the variable that is manipulated
dependent variable (response variable)
response that is due to, or correlated with the experimental variable (y-axis); the variable that is observed
confounding variables
when >1 variable is manipulated and the interpretations of the results are "confounded"
the sum of an organism's responses to internal and external stimuli
a factor that triggers a certain response. Ex: moisture, light, temperature, salinity, pH, etc.
random movement that is not oriented in a certain way with regard to a stimulus
movement toward or away from stimulus
the branch of biology that deals with the normal functions and process of organisms and their parts
bar graphs
used when x-axis has distinct categories or distinct separate unites. Ex: hot, warm, cold, large, medium, small, species composition. Often researcher-defined. No set order to the unites.
line graphs
used when there is a natural sequence to the units. Ex: time elapsed. Depict trend in data at equal intervals.
proportional graphs
used to show the amount each category contributes to the whole of something
cell theory- schwann and schleiden
1. All organisms are composed of cells
2. Cells are the basic living, function, units of all organisms
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells
contains genetic information
fluid in the cell
powerhouse of the cell
photosynthesis in plants
stores nutrients/materials in plants
protects the cell/organelle, selectively permeable, made of phospholipids
sites of translation (making proteins)
digests cellular material for re-using