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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
always a small population getting smaller

consequences- little genetic variation, reproductive problems, syptomatic of inbreeding, low sperm count
Continuous Drift
population alternately ceases for a time and then starts again
Intermittent Drift
loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals
Founder Effect
reduction of a population's gene pool and changes in gene frequency are produced when few members survive
Bottleneck Effect
one mater per mate
four mates per fmale
twenty mates per male
matings between geneticlally related individuals

it increases homozygosity and leads to a high incience of recessive, genetic diseases
Mutation introduces variation

Selection removes variation
Mutation-Selection Balance
Drift fixes neutral alleles

Most variation we see in population is neutral

rate of fixation independent of population size
Natural Theory of Evolution
General Distance
a process whereby over time one species diverges to become two or more species

one species splits into 2 or more daughter species which thereafter evolves as distinct lineages
prevents genetic exchange and allows divergence

the cause of speciation

no fertile offspring

no gene flow
Reproductive Isolation
prevents members of different species to reproduce; (no loss of gene flow)
Prezygotic Barrier
prevents a fertilized egg from developing into a fertile adult
Postzygotic Barrier
adapted to eating in the littoral zone(by the shore)
-long wide body size
-short snout
-small eyes
Benthic 3-spine stickleback
adapted to eating in the open water
-tapered and slim body size
-long snout
-large eyes
Limnetic 3-spine stickleback
new species evolves from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographic region
Sympatric Speciation
new species evolves from single species while inhabiting different geographic region
Allopatric Speciation
a graphic representation of lines of descent among organisms or their genes
Phylogenetic Tree
the evolutionary history of a particular group of organisms or their genes
a biological group that is given a name
a monophyletic group made up of an ancestor and all of its descendants
pertaining to a group that consists of an ancestor and all of its descendants
Monophyletic group
pertaining to a group that consists of an ancestor and some of its descendants
Paraphyletic group
pertaining to a group that consists of multiple distantly related organisms and does not include a common ancestor
Polyphyletic group
two phylogenetic groups that are each others closest relatives
Sister species
trait originally present in the ancestor of the given group, may be retained or changed in the descendants of that ancestor
Ancestral trait
a trait that differs from the ancestral trait
Derived Trait
similarity between two or more features that is due to inheritance from a common ancestor. the structures are said to be homologous, and ach is a homolog of the others
the presence in multiple groups of a trait that is not inherited from the common ancestor of those groups
Independent evolution of similar features from different ancestral traits
Convergent Evolution
a). infer phylogenetic tree from aligned sequences and determine best-fitting evolutionary model
b). reconstruct protein sequence at ancestral node by maximum likelihood
c). synthesize oligonucleotides and assemble gene for ancestral protein by stopwise PCR
d). subclone assmbled gene into vector, transform cultured cells, and express ancestral protein
e) purify ancestral protein and characterize function using trans-activation, binding or other assay
Ancestral Gene Reconstruction
ancestors to all life on earth

-lack nucleus
-no membrane bound organelles
-one ring of DNA (one chromosome)
plasmids transfer from one bacterium to another
DNA transfered from one bacterium to another by a virus
Increases variation in bacterial populations by taking DNA from the environment and recombining it with the bacterial genome
Natural Transformation
Movement of genes from one species to another

-usually interferes with determination of evolutionary relationship
Horizontal Gene Transfer
-evolutionarily ancient
-critical role in translation
-evolved slowly
organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes
-set apart from prokaryotic cells because of containing a nucleus
-mitochondria(makes ATP for energy) and chloroplasts(permit photosynthesis) formerly small prokaryotes
-engulfed by larger ancestral eukaryote
-already had internal membranes
-mutualism: beneficial relationship for both
-became interdependent
Theory of Serial Endosymbiosis
describes life cycle of plants , fungi, and protists
Alternation of Generations
haploid multicellular phase of plants and algae that undergo alternation of generations with each cell containing a single set of chromosomes
diploid multicellular phase of plants and algae that undergo alternation of generations with each cell having a double set of chromosomes
-produced by sporophyte
-non flowering plants
-short lived
-flowering plant
-supply of stored food (endosperm)
-wrapped in a coat
-long lasting, resistant to harsh conditions
-introduces dormant phase that allows embryo to develop when conditions are favorable
-evolutionary breakthrough in colonization of land
-conducting tissue (water & nutrients)
-more than one cell type
-found in vascular plants
ex. club mosses, ferns
vascular tissue
transport tissue in vascular plants(mainly water)
composed of primarily dead cells
transport living tissue in vascular plants(mainly nutrients)
composed of primarily living cells
opens pores in leave for gas diffusion
-lets carbon dioxide in and oxygen out
-closed if very dry to prevent water loss
-longitudinal rod
-structural suppoet
-gelatinous material of disks in vertebral column
-flexible rod with muscles attached
-facilitated movement
runs beneath dorsal surface in vertebrates develops into CNS (brain and spinal cord)
Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
feeding adaption
-allows water that enters mouth to exit without going through system (later modified for gas exchange)
-in terrestrial chordates do not fully form
Pharyngeal slits (pouches)
contains skeletal elements and muscles propulsive force in many aquatic species
Postanal Tail
distinguished from non vertebrate chordates by:
-cranium: distinct and well differentiated head region; brain encased within protective cranium of bone or cartilage

-neural crest cells
development of skeletal structures, including cranium, jaws, teeth, and nerves
consistent with large size and more active lifestyle

-vertebral column: notochord is replaced during development by a vertebral column; series of bony or cartilaginous vertebrae enclose and protect nerve chord

Endoskeleton: bone and cartilage-very strong and flexible ; grows wit animal-living cells within skeleton; increases the potential size and power

internal organs: liver, heart
adaptions to respitory and circulatory systems: more active metabolisms

adaptions for feeding, digestion and nutrient absorption

vertebrate animals with 4 limbs
ex. amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals,snakes

evolution: new niches for animals to radiate out into ; strong selection for animals who could tap into niches

adaptions: protection from dissection; ability to extract oxygen from air; ability to support weight out of water; evolution of rib cage to protect internal organs