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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
10. Define pigments.
pigment-light absorging molecules.
11. Where in the chloroplasts do the light-dependent reactions occur? Calvin's cycle?
The light-dependent reactions take place within the thylakoid memebranes of chloroplasts. The Calvin Cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts & does not require light.
12. Why are plants green?
Plants are green because chlorophyll does not absorb light well in the green region of the spectrum
13. Photosytems I and II belong to what step of photosynthesis? And where does this take place?
Photosytems I and II belong to the first step of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis begins when pigments in photosytem II absorb light.
14. What is produced by the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis?
The Calvin Cycle uses ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars.
15. What does the Calvin cycle use carbon dioxide for?
Carbon dioxide molecules combine with 6 5-carbon molecules = 12 3-carbon molecules.
16. What 3 things are produced in the light-dependent reactions?
Light-dependent reactions produce oxygen gas, ATP, and NADPH
17. What is the relationship between light intensity and photosynthesis?
Increasing light intensity increases the rate of photosynthesis.
18. How does temperature affect the rate of enzyme reactions in photosynthesis?
Temperature above or below 0 degrees C & 35 degrees C may damage the enzymes, slowing down the rate of photosynthesis.
19. Why doesn't the chlorophyll molecule run out of electrons? What molecule is replacing them?
Chlorophyll does not run out of electrons because they are supplied by light energy. The new electrons come from water molecules.
20. Write the equation for photosynthesis. Label the reactants and products.
6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Carbon dioxide + water -> sugar + oxygen
21. What are the products of lactic acid fermentation, alcoholic fermentation, and cellular respiration? Be sure to include the amount of energy produced by each process.
alcoholic fermentation-yeast & other microorganisms
Lactic acid fermentation-lactic acid & glucose
cellular respiration-carbon dioxide & water
22. How long must you exercise aerobically before your body will start to break down stored fat?
Longer than a minute-fifty your body will start to break down stored fat. Before that your body will use carbohydrate glycogen; that your body has already stored in muscles and other tissues.
23. What does the body use for energy in the first few seconds of intense actitivty?
The first few seconds of intense activity your body uses energy supplied by ATP
24. List the three steps of cellular respiration in order.
1) Pyruvic acids broken down to carbon dioxide 2) enters mitochondria 3) citric acid broken down.
25. In what part of a eukaryotic cell do the above steps occur?
Take place in the cytoplasm.
26. How much net ATP is produced by glycolysis?
2 ATP molecules are produced by glycolysis.
27. Where in the human body does lactic acid fermentation occur?
Lactic acid fermentation occurs in human muscle cells.
28. What is the equation for lactic acid fermentation after glycolysis
pyruvic acid + NADH -> lactic acid + NAD+
29. If oxygen is present what step foolows glycolysis? If no oxygen is present, what chemical pathways could follow glycolysis?
In the presence of oxygen, glycolysis is followed by the KREBS cycle and the electron transport chain. In the absence of oxygen, glycolysis is followed by fermentation. Because fermentation does not require oxygen, it said to be anaerobic.
30. What molecule produced in glycolysis enters the Kreb cycle?
Pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis enters the Kreb cycle, the second stage of cellular respiration.
31. In what organelle of eukaryoic cells does Kreb's cycle and electron transport occur?
The Krebs cycle and electron transport take place inside the mitochondria.
32. The high energy electrons generated in the electron transport chian are used to make what?
The electron transport chain uses the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP.
33. How does a runner or athlete repay an oxygen debt?
Becasue when the game or race is over, the only way to get rid of lactic acid is in a chemical pathyway that requires extra oxygen.
34. If you exercise for longer than 30 seconds, how will your body produce ATP?
Exercising longer than 30 seconds, cellular respiration is the only way to generate a continuing supply of ATP
35. Aerobic forms of exercise are beneficial for weight control but how long must you do it ot actually burn any fat?
Aerobic forms of exercie are beneficial for weight control but you must do it longer than 20 minutes to actually burn any fat.
36. Wht 3 ways can the body obtain energy during exercise?
To obtain energy, the body uses atp already in muscles and new ATP made by lactic acid fermentation and cellular respiration.
37. Describ why photosynthesis and respiration are considered the opposite of each other?
The equations for each are the reverse of each other.
Photosynthesis-energy storage, remove CO2 from atmosphere, release oxygen, takes place-plants, algae & some bacteria
Cellular respiration-energy released, puts back CO2, uses oxygen to release energy from food, take place-all eukaryotes & some prokaryotes
38. If no oxygen is available, how much ATP will be produced from the breakdown of glucose?
2 ATP produced from the brokendown of glucose.
39. Glucose is converted into what type of molecules in glycolysis?
Glucose is broken in 1/2, producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound.
40. What are the products of alcoholic fermentation?
Yeasts and a few other microorganisms use alcoholic fermentation.
01. Diagram and label a chloroplast.
Photosystems, clusters of pigment & protein absorb light energy found in sac like photosynthetic membranes called thylakoids. The Stroma is the space outside the thylakoid membrane. A granum is a stack of thylakoids.
02. Where in the chloroplast is the chlorophyll located?
Chlorophyll is located in the thylakoids.
04. Energy is released from ATP when it is converted into what? How does this occur?
The energy stored in ATP is released when ATP is converted into ADP and a phosphate group. Because a cell can add and subtract a 3rd phosphate group, it has a way of storing & releasing energy as needed.
05. Diagram and label an ATP molecule?
Adenine Ribose 3 phosphate group
06. List two examples of how the cell uses ATP energy?
Cells can use ATp energy in a variety of ways: 1) active transport 2) ATP also powers movement within the cell
07. What does the cell do with the ADP that is created when ATP loses its third phosphate?
Cells can regernerate ATP from ADP as needed by using the enrgy in carbohydrates like glucose.
08. What did Jan van Helmont conclude about photosynthesis?
Jan van Helmont concluded that trees gain most of their mass from water.
09. Briefly describe Priestly's experiment. What did he conclude?
Using a bell jar, a candle, and a plant, Priestly finds that the plant releases a substance that keeps the candle buring-oxygen. Priestly concluded that oxygen was required to keep the candle flame buring.
03. What two high energy carriers are produced by the light-dependent reactions?
The light-dependent reactions produce 2 high energy carries: ATP and NADPH