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41 Cards in this Set

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Definition of Metabolism

All the chemical changes that occur in an organism


serve as catalysts (chemical agents that change the rate of reaction without being consumed)

Catabolic metabolism

Breaks down complex molecules to simpler compounds. Breaking bonds releases energy

Anabolic metabolism

Consumes energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones. Forming bonds requires energy.

Energy coupling

interaction between catabolic and anabolic pathways

catabolic pathways often energize anabolic ones


The ability to rearrange a collection of matter, the capacity to do work

Kinetic Energy

when energy is associated with the relative motion of objects

Potential Energy

the energy present due to an object's position or composition

Chemical Energy

potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction


The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter

1st Law of Thermodynamics

Energy can be transferred and transformed but it cannot be created or destroyed. Conservation of energy

2nd Law of Thermodynamics

Every energy transformation or transfer increases the entropy of the universe.


Measure of disorder, takes the form of heat

Free Energy (G)

Portion of a system's energy that is available to perform work. All molecules have free energy

Equation for change in free energy (∆G)

∆G= ∆H - T∆S

H= total energy

T= absolute temperature in Kelvin

S= system's entropy

Spontaneous Reaction

Occurs without energy, ∆G < 0

Non-spontaneous Reaction

Requires energy to proceed, ∆G > 0

Exergonic reaction

∆G < 0, reactions proceed with a net release of free energy

Endergonic reaction

∆G > 0, reactions absorb free energy from the environment

Cellular respiration

C6H12O6 (sugar) + 6O2 yields 6CO2 and 6H2O


∆G= -686 kcal/mol per 180 grams of glucose


Adenosine triphosphate, source of energy that drives cellular work

Structure of ATP

1. Adenine nitrogenous base

2. Ribose sugar

3. 3 phosphate groups

Where is the energy stored in ATP?

between the bonds of the three phosphates

How does ATP perform work?

Water hydrolyzes terminal phosphate bond and a molecule of inorganic phosphate is removed (exergonic)

∆G= -7.3 kcal/mol

What happens to the phosphate removed from ATP?

Phosphate group is transferred to some other molecule with the help of an enzyme (phosphorylated)

Energy coupling

Cell uses energy released by ATP hydrolysis to drive endergonic reactions

How is ATP regenerated?

Addition of a phosphate to ADP

What enzyme hydrolyzes sucrose into glucose and fructose?


How do catalysts increase the rate of reactions?

They lower the activation energy


Substances on which the enzyme will work. Enzymes pick specific ones

Active site

Place on enzyme on which substrate binds, pocket or groove on surface of protein

3 Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

1. Environmental conditions

2. Cofactors

3. Inhibitors

Environmental factors affecting enzyme activity

1. Temperature

2. pH Level

3. Salt concentration


Non-protein helpers for catalytic activity

Inorganic cofactors

metal atoms (zinc, iron, copper)

Organic molecules

Coenzymes (vitamins)

Competitive Inhibitor

Competes with substrate for active site, interfering with enzyme activity

How to overcome competitive inhibitor

Increase amount of substrate so there is more substrate than competitive inhibitor

Non-competitive Inhibitor

Does not directly compete for active site, but changes shape of active site when it attaches to allosteric site


Makes products faster, process runs more smoothly

Feedback Inhibition

Near the end of a process, final product will recognize that there is an abundance of such product. Binds to first enzyme at allosteric site and halts process