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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are simple reflexes?
Controlled at spinal cord

Two neuron pathway:
receptor (afferent neuron) -> motor (efferent neuron)

More important in lower forms of life
What are complex reflexes?
Reflexes involving the brain

Startle response involves interaction of many neurons, a system termed the reticular activating system
What is the reticular activating system?
Startle response

Response to danger or hearing name called

Interaction of many neurons
What are fixed-action patterns?
Complex, coordinated, innate behavioral responses to specific patterns of stimulation in the environment

Stimulus that elicits the behavior is referred to as the releaser

Innate, therefore relatively unlikely to be modified by learning

Ability to slightly change the stimuli is more likely than developing new ones

Example: Mother taking on another egg from same species (egg must look alike); swimming of fish together
What is the deal with circadian rythems?
Behavior occuring every 24 hours can be partially lost if not exposed to natural phases of light and dark

Daily cycles are intrinsic but modified by external stimuli
What is habituation?
Suppression of startle response to stimuli

Repeated stimulation will result in decreased responsiveness to that stimuli

If stimuli is no longer regularly applied, the response tends to recover over time, referred to as spontaneous recovery

Recovery of response can also occur with a modification of the stimulus
What is Classical Conditioning?
Pavlovian Conditioning

Association of a normal autonomic or visceral response with an environment stimulus

Response learned is usually called conditioned reflex
Pavlav's Experiment and Terminology:
Arbitrary stimulus: Bell
Unconditioned stimulus: Food
Unconditioned response: Salivation
Conditioned stimulus: Bell, following conditioning
conditioned reflex: bell yields salivation
Conditioning: Establishment of a new reflex by the addition of a new, previously neutral stimulus
What is pseudoconditioning?
When the neutral stimulus was in fact NOT neutral in the first place
What is the basis of Operant or Instrumental Conditioning?
Conditioning responses to stimuli with the use of reward or reinforcement

Can be positive or negative reinforcement
What is Habit Family Hierarchy?
Stimulus is usually associated with several possible responses, each with differing probability

Reward strengthens a specific behavioral response and raises it on the hierarchy; punishment lowers it
In classical conditioning, can conditioning be lost if stimulus is no longer applied?
Yes, stimulus must be paired to response at least part of the time to maintain

Recovery can be made
In instrumental or operant conditioning, can conditioning be lost if stimulus is no longer applied?
Behavior is diminished but can be regained with reinforcement
What happens when a stimulus is generalized?
The conditioned organism's response will be similar if the stimuli is generalized.

Less similar the stimuli, the less similar the result
Is an organism able to discriminate a stimulus?
Yes, as a stimuli is further from the orginal stimulus, the likely hood of response diminishes
What is imprinting?
Environmental patterns or objects are introduced during "critical period" that become accepted as a permanent element of a behavioral response

Duckling sees first object as its mother
What is the critical period?
Specific time periods in early development for where it is physiologically possible to develop specific behavioral patterns
What are some behavioral displays?
Innate Behavior

Reproductive displays - Dancing or colors
Agonistic displays - Dog wags tail
Antagonistic display - Doy growls
What is the purpose of the pecking order?
To establish rank and minimize intra-specific aggressions
What does territoriality do?
Distribute members of species to minimize depletion of resources in small area

Minimize intraspecific competition

The larger the population, the smaller the territories are likely to be
What are pheromones and what are the two types?
Substances that influence the behavior of other animals

Releaser Pheromones: Trigger reversible behavioral change in recipient

Primer Pheromones: Produce long term behavioral and physiological alterations in recipient animals