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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

adatapive significance

role in survival and fitness, under ultimate causation, WHY?


behavior that increases another individual offspring as cost to ones own survival and reproduction

associative learning

new response becomes linked with a particular stimulus, two stimuli that interact

behavioral ecology

deals with ultimate causation, evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures, how natural selection shapes behavior

classical conditioning

paired presentation of two different kinds of stimuli causes the animal to form an association between the stimuli. AKA Pavlovian conditioning. unrelated stimuli

cost-benefit analysis

develop traits to benefit siblings, even if its bad for the other person

ratio of cost to donor and benefits to receiver

Hamilton's rule


cost to donor

relatedness of donor and receiver

benefit to receiver

inclusive fitness

own survival and reproduction aiding survival + reproduction of non-descendant heir


indirect fitness

impact an individual has on the survival and reproduction of relatives

intrasexual selection

competition with one another for the opportunity to mate. usually males

intersexual selection

active choice of a mate, usually for female, can be determined by attractive traits of the males or what the males can provide in resources

kin selection

favors reproductive success of organisms relatives, even at cost to own organisms survival and reproduction


accidental altruism, one animal uses another one to get what they want. bird that puts its eggs in another nest

mating systems






single sexual partner, one male one female


two organisms work together, both benefit from relationship

ontogeny (level of analysis)

proximate causation, HOW? development

operant conditioning

voluntary or desired behavior becomes involved with reward, lack of reward or punishment. skinner.

optimal group size

aggrgations vs social groups vs colonies

pros and cons for groups

parental investment

time and energy put into an offspring. females tend to have higher

phylogeny (level of analysis)

ultimate causation, WHY? origin in groups of related species

physiology (level of analysis)

HOW? how influenced by hormones, nerve cells, and other internal factors


female with multiple males, rare


male with multiple females


both sexes have multiple partners

proximate causation

mechanisms that produce the behavior


"partnerships" give aid and delay payment for the good deed to a time in the future when in need

reproductive isolation

prevent two different species that mate from producing offspring, or produce sterile offspring

reproductive strategies

set of behaviors that presumably have evolved to maximize reproductive success

secondary sexual characteristics

sexual selection leads to the evolution of structures used in combat with other males, as well as ornaments used to "persuade" members of the opposite sex to mate

sexual dimorphism

differences between sexes, males may be considerably larger than females

sexual selection

competition for mates


individual defends a portion of its home range and uses it and its resources exclusively

ultimate causation

adaptive value. why a behavior evolved WHY?