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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


science of describing, naming, and classifying living organisms


study of biological diversity and the evolutionary relationships among organisms


species still alive


no species no longer alive

taxonomic group

hypotheses regarding evolutionary relationships from systematics


each group at any level


the three domains that ALL life fall under: bacteria, archaea, and eukarya


lies between a domain an kingdom

the seven supergroups


land plants and relatives





opisthokonta (fungi and animalia)

the taxonomic hierarchy

1. domain

2. supergroup

3. kingdom

4. phylum

5. class

6. order

7. family

8. genus

9. species

binomial nomenclature

how species are named

genus and species name used, genus is capitalized and species lowercase


the evolutionary history of a species or a group of species, using systematics

based on morphological or genetic data

always a hypothesis

phylogenetic tree

hypothesis of evolutionary relationships


a species that diverges into 2 or more species


all species that derive from a common ancestor


one species evolve into a different species

extinct and extant species on a phylogenetic tree

extinct are at the bottom and middle while extant are always on top


a group that contains a common ancestor and ALL of its descendants (a clade)

paraphyletic group

a group that contains a common ancestor but doesn't have all of its descendants

polyphyletic group

groups species with different common ancestors but may be classified together because they have a similar characteristic that developed convergently

what group to taxonomists usually recognize and classify?

monophyletic groups

systematics based on homolgy

similarities song species occur because they are derived from a common ancestor; can be morphological, developmental, or genetic

what did the first studies of systematics focus primarily on?

morphological features; but this was troublesome because of convergent evolution due to some species not being related at all but having similar characters

molecular systematics

studies genetic homologies and propose phylogenetic trees

looks at DNA and amino acid sequences


when a DNA section is deleted in a species but them reinserted later on in an evolutionary descendent; the character state has been regained


compares homologous traits which exist in two or more states

based on evolutionary relationships

chooses the least complex explanation


a diagram based off cladistics, is the least complex of all the options based on evolutionary relationships

can also be constructed using gene sequences

change in gene = modification in character


features of a species

branch point

where two species will differ in shared derived characters

shared primitive character

inherited from ancestors older than last common ancestor

shared derived character

originated in most recent common ancestor


the group whose evolutionary relationships are being evaluated


a species or group that is assumed to have diverged before the species of the ingroup so they are not being analyzed

how to construct a cladogram

1. determine polarity of character states between primitive and derived

2. group taxa by shared derived characters and they should only appear once unless convergent evolution occurred

3. choose the most likely, simplest option

principle of parsimony

the preferred hypothesis of a cladogram is the one that is the simplest for all the characters and their states

molecular clocks

nucleotide differences used to estimate time since divergence

more time since divergence = greater accumulation of mutations

linearity of a molecular clock

not very linear, due to difference in generation times and variation in mutation rates

rapidly evolving genes

are useful for studying closely related species

slowly evolving genes

are useful for studying evolution over long periods

vertical evolution

hanges in groups due to descent from common ancestor

neutral theory of evolution

proposes that most genetic variation that exists in populations is due to the accumulation of neutral mutations that are not acted upon by natural selection

horizontal gene transfer

an organism incorporates genetic material from another organism without begin the offspring of the organism

common in prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea gave rise to chloroplasts and mitochondria)