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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cell Cycle
all of the events that occur from the time that a cell is formed to when it divides
the cell grows in size by synthesizing new organelles (G1). It replicates genetic material (S). It produces enzymes and structures that are needed to undergo cell division (G2).
Mitotic phase
consist of 2 processes
is the process where the nuclear material divides and results in 2 daughter nuclei that have the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the parental nucleus.
separates cytoplasm resulting in the formation of 2 daughter cells.
Cleave furrow
pinching off the cytoplasm. Microfilaments
Cell Plate
used to divide the cytoplasm for plant cells. Cellulose, vesicles from golgi apparatus. Plant cells do not have asters
mictrotubule that radiate out from the ends of the spindle apparatus found in animal cells undergoing cell division.
cell division (for growth, replacement and repair) 2n => 2n n=>n clones haploid/diploid – sets of chromosomes PMAT
Cells Used
Whitefish embryo, onion root cell
used to make gametes (animals) plants make it through mitosis (reduction division) 2n => n
determined by particular factors (genes) and these factors in an individual occurs in pairs (one for each parent)
Mendel’s 1st law of segregation
when gametes are created, these factors segregate or separate so that only one member of each pair of genes is contained within a particular cell or gamete.
Mendel’s 2nd law of independent assortment
factors for one trait segregate independently from factors for other traits (one factor did not influence the others)
hereditary information an individual is found on threadlike DNA structures
- contain information for the different traits that make up an individual located in segments of DNA
each member of a gene pair and may occur in alternate states.
Kinds of alleles
Dominant (H) recessive (h) homozygous (HH or hh) heterozygous (Hh)
genetic information found on alleles
physical expression of the genetic information
Multiple allelic traits
traits with more than two alternate forms of alleles
traits may have two alternate alleles that are expressed simultaneously with both being equal in their dominance to each other
molecules that elicit an immune response on the surface of the red blood cells erythrocytes
Type A (antigen)
antigen A on rbcs
Type B (antigen)
antigen B on rbs
Type AB (antigen)
both antigen A and antigen B
Type O(antigen)
- lack of antigen A and antigen B
to mark antigens that are not found on their erythrocytes for elimination
Type A (antibodies)
makes anti-B antibodies
Type B (antibodies)
makes anti-A antibodies
types of traits in lab
Complete Dominance
incomplete dominance
lethal alleles
x-linked inheritance
dihybrid cross
polygenic inheritance
Type AB (antibodies)
neither anti-A or anti-B antibodies
Type O (antibodies)
both anti-A or anti-B antibodies
agglutinins. Clumping (agglutination)
Thin layer chromatography
technique used for chemical separation and analysis of multiple component mixtures
2 types of thin layer chromatography
Paper Chromatography (uses absorbent paper), while the other utilized a layer of solid absorbent on a glass plate
Paper Chromatography
samples containing different molecular components are placed on specially treated paper (the stationary phase) and puts into a container with solvent (the moving phase)
Absorption coefficient
the affinity for a component to be absorbed
Solubility product constant
varying affinities or solubility in different solvents and therefore each has a charateristic velocity relative to th solvent.
Single Phase System/Double Phase System
one solvent (H2O and ethanol).. two solvents (H2O + ethanol)
Proteins and nucleic acids usually have a net positive or negative charge that reflects the mixture of charged amino acids or nucleotides they contain. If an electric field is applied to a solution containing these molecules, they will migrate at a rate that depends on its net charge, its size, and its shape.
Electrophoresis ingredients
agarose gels, comb
Stationary Phase
Moving Phase
Solvents used for chromatography
Water, Ethanol, Hexane/Methanol
If the substance went far
it has high absorption coefficient/low affinity for solvent
if substance went far
it has low absorption coefficient/high solubility product constant
Chloroplast pigments
yellow carotenes, yellow-orange xanthrophylls, bluish green chlorophyll a, yellow-green chlorophyll b
Genetic profile/DNA fingerprint
unique sequence of DNA
junk dna/non coding regions
used to haev no purpose - found out for cellular metabolism/gene expression
DNA are polymorphs, meaning that every individual has different DNA sequence unless you have an identical sibling
Restricition Fragment Length Polymorphis (RFLPs)
used for DNA fingerprinting, noncoding regions from individuals cut at specific locations by using restricting enzymes
Phosphodiester Bond
connects nucleotides in DNA
Recognition site
example: GAATTC
DNA samples are placed....
on the negative side
How many restricting enzymes needed
more than one for accuracy
Polymerase Chain Reaction
allows specific chromosome locations to be targeted and copies of the targeted DNA made
Short Tandem Repeats (STR)
used in DNA analysis, now called DNA profile. tagged with fluorescent dyes and pointed at lasers. Peaks shown by computer if repeated bases.
STR Profile
If there are two peaks, it means it is heterozygoes at that location, one peak = homozygous.
STR Profile continued
The numbers below the peak are person's genotype - number means how many times repeated. Letter and number above is the location.
Two STR groups
Group 1 contains 9 STR loci plus one used for gender (AML). Group 2 contains 4 more STR sites, plus AML, and 2 STR sites from group 1 as control to ensure that the same came from the same person.
Chi-square Test
to determine whether experimentally collected data are a satisfactory approximation of the expected data.
Formula for Chi-square Test
the sum of (observed-expected)^2 divided by expected number
Analysis for Chi-square
a small X2 value would indicate that the observed and expected ratios are in close agreement, while a large X2 value would indicated that "something unusual" had occured.