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22 Cards in this Set

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Carbohydrates

(CH20)n; smallest units of these are monosaccharides and are also known as simple sugars (ex. glucose and fructose). Monosaccharides can join together to form disaccharides (2), oligosaccharides (several), or polysaccharides (thousands) of simple sugars.

Lipids

diverse group that have low or no solubility in water. Common ones are steroids, phospholipids, and fats and oils. Saturated if tails carry max number of hydrogen atoms.

Proteins

long chains of amino acids, thousands of chains make up proteins once folded in 3D structure. Formed through peptide bonds between amino acids.

Amino Acid Structure

Nucleic Acids

DNA and RNA. DNA is instructions for constructing each organism on Earth. Made by double helix of two nucleotide monomers. Contains 5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate group, and nitrogenous base.

Purine Ring

Guanine and Adenine. Both contain two interlocking rings.

Pyrimidine Ring

Cytosine and Thymine. Only have one ring.

Phosphodiester Bond

the bond linking nucleotides.

Positive vs. Negative Control

Positive control = a response is expected.


Negative control = no response is expected (water in this experiment).

Iodine Test

positive result is deep blue-black colour. Tests for starch.

Benedict's Test For Reducing Sugars

when heated with sugars that contain aldehyde or ketone functional groups, this causes Cu2+ to reduce to Cu+ thus changing the colour of solution. Sucrose and Starch do not test positive though because they are consumed during the formation. Positive test = green (weak), yellow (stronger), orange, brown, or red (very strongly positive) precipitate. Used to test for sugars in diabetes urine.

Biuret Test for Proteins

detects bonds that form between amino acids (peptide bonds). Turns solution violet if positive.

Sudan IV Test for Lipids

Soluble in lipids. When it dissolves, is causes the solution to turn pink or red with flakes.

Acid Hydrolysis

breaking down macromolecules into their monomers in the presence of heat and acid.

Electrophoresis

separating a mixed population of molecules to isolate only one part desired. Charged molecules move through a gel-like matrix under the influence of an electric field.

Sieving

Shorter DNA molecules move faster and migrate farther than longer ones because shorter molecules migrate more easily through the pores of the gel.

Agarose

sieving gel made from red algae.

Hydrogen Ion Concentration

usually expressed in negative exponents of ten.

pH Scale

designed to remove negative exponents for hydrogen ion concentration measurements. Neutral is 7 pH. Below 7 acidic. Above 7 basic.

Strong Acid / Base

a substance that will completely dissociate in water.

Weak Acid / Base

will reach equilibrium in which some of the molecules are dissociated but other not.

Buffers

maintain pH of a solution by minimizing changes in the concentration of hydrogen ions. Does not make solution neutral, only used to maintain current pH.