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83 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What structurally characterizes fatty acids?

A long carbon chain (12 C or more) with a carboxyl group attached

What is a saturated fatty acid?

A fatty acid that is "saturated" with hydrogen. There are no double bonds present.

What is an unsaturated fatty acid?

A fatty acid that contains 1 or more double bonds, therefore, it is not saturated with hydrogen.

What can be said about the isomerism around the double bond of an unsaturated fatty acid?

In most organisms, fatty acids are cis

As a fatty acid chain gets longer...

...the melting point increases

When a fatty acid lengthens, its melting point increases. If so, what can be said about fatty acids with double bonds?

Fatty acids with a double bond will have a lower melting point than fatty acids that lack them.

Saturated fatty acid chains can pack closely together to form ordered, rigid arrays under certain conditions, but unsaturated fatty acid chains...

...prevent such close packing due to the double bonds present. Therefore, unsaturated fatty acid chains form flexible, fluid aggregates.

Because unsaturated fatty acid chains don't pack tightly...

...membranes made of them have an increased fluidity and movement.

According to IUPAC naming conventions, how do you denote a molecule that has 12, 14, 16, 18, or 20 carbons?

12: dodec. 14: tetradec, 16: hexadec, 18: octadec, and 20: eicos.

What is the name of a fatty acid that is 18 carbons long with one double bond in the chain at position 9?

cis-9-octadecenoic acid

What are two essential fatty acids?

Linoleic acid and alpha linoleic acid

What purpose do essential fatty acids serve?

They act as precursor molecules to other essential molecules

What is eicosanoic acid derived from?

Linoleic acid

What is eicosanoic acid the precursor to?

All eicosanoids

What are two eicosanoids?

Prostaglandins and leukotrienes

What do prostaglandins induce?

The inflammatory response

What is ibuprofen/aspirin?

An anti-prostaglandin

What do ibuprofen/aspirin inhibit specifically?


What does COX-2 convert eicosanoic acid into?

Arachadonic acid (a prostaglandin)

By inhibiting COX-2, what does eicosanoic acid degrade into?


How can prostaglandins and leukotrienes be differentiated based on structure?

Prostaglandins form a circular ring while leukotrienes are linear

High LDLs and low HDLs can lead to...

...Heart disease, atherosclerosis, and an increased inflammatory response

What does LDL stand for?

Low density lipoproteins

What does HDL stand for?

High density lipoproteins

What do statins do?

Increase HDL's and lower LDL's, therefore, acting as an anti-inflammatory

How can a triacylglycerol be identified based on its structure?

A triacylglycerol is a lipid with a glycerol backbone that has three fatty acids attached to it

What kind of bond attaches fatty acids to the glycerol backbone?

Ester bonds

By what mechanism are fatty acids attached to the glycerol backbone?

Via de-hydration of the glycerol and fatty acid.

Where are a vast majority of triacylglycerols stored?

Adipose tissue

What is the main function of adipose tissue?

Long term energy storage

What are two other functions of adipose tissue?

Thermal insulation and as endocrine tissue

What can be said about the fatty acids in triacylglycerides?

There will be 2 or 3 different fatty acids attached to the glycerol.

Are triacylglycerides with three identical fatty acids found in nature?

No. If they are found, they have been manufactured.

What is glycerol derived from?


What is the process of soponification?

The base catalyzed hydrolysis of fatty acid esters

During soponification, what is formed?

A sodium carboxylate salt

What is a micelle?

An circular aggregate of lipids with the hydrophobic groups facing towards the center and the polar groups facing out.

How do micelles form?

Micelles form when amphipathic molecules arrange themselves in the most thermodynamically favored (i.e. hydrophobic tails go inward, while polar heads go out).

What condition has to be met for a micelle to form spontaneously?

The concentration of surfactant is greater than the critical micelle concentration (CMC).

What is the critical micelle concentration?

The concentration above surfactant when micelles form

What is a surfactant?

Any surface active material that can part the surface upon entering

The higher the critical micelle concentration...

...the more micelles there are.

The lower the critical micelle concentration...

...the less micelles there are.

What do soaps do to the critical micelle concentration?

They decrease it

What do soaps do to the critical micelle concentration in water?

It increases

What characterizes a glycerophospholipid?

A diacylglycerol that has a phosphate group esterified attached at the third C of the glycerol backbone

What class of lipids are all glycerophosopholipids considered?


Gylcerophospholipids are critical components of...

...cell membranes

In a glycerophospholipid, what is "head" group and what are the "tails?"

The phosphate group is considered the "head" and the fatty acids are the "tails"

What is the parent compound of all glycerophospholipids?

Phosphatidic acid

Because of the phosphate group, phosphatidic acid is...

...negatively charged

When a choline group forms a phosphoester bond with the phosphate group of phosphatidic acid, what does it form?

Phosphotidylcholine (PC's)

When the positively charged choline is attached to the negatively charged phosphate group of a phosphatidic acid, what can be said about the overall charge of the lipid?

The charge of the lipid has been permanently changed and it has a neutral charge

What is the name of this molecule?

What is the name of this molecule?


What is the name of this molecule?

What is the name of this molecule?


What determines the packing ability of phospholipids?

The presence and/or number of double bonds in the phospholipid

What can be said about the composition of a cellular membrane?

It is made up of various diacylglycerophosphates and cholesterol

When there is more cholesterol present in a membrane...

...the membrane is more fluid

Why does an increased amount of cholesterol increase the fluidity of a membrane?

There are more double bonds present in cholesterol, therefore, they do not pack as tightly

What is a key enzyme present in snake venoms?


What is the function of a phospholipase?

It is an enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids. Specifically, the bond between C1 of the fatty acid and the O it is attached to.

If phospholipase removes 1 fatty acid at C2, what does the phospholipid become?

A lysolecithin

What is lysolecithin?

An ionic detergent that dissolves cellular membranes

What characterizes a etherglycerophospholipid?

An ether linkage to the phosphate group at C1

What is an example of an etherglycerophospholipid?

Platelet activating factor

What is the function of platelet activating factor?

It causes the aggregation of platelets at the site of a wound and causes vasodilation

What characterizes a sphingolipid?

The backbone is sphingosine and not glycerol

What can sphingolipids form that glycolipids can't?

A fatty acid amide

If there is a fatty acid amide present at C2 on a sphingolipid it is called...

...a ceramide

When you combine a ceramide with a phosphate, you get...

...a sphingomyeline

When you combine a ceramide with a sugar hemiacietal, you get...

...a glycosphingolipid

Nervous tissue membranes have...

...an increased concentration of sphingolipids

What are waxes?

Esters of long chain alcohols and a saturated fatty acid (usually)

What is lanolin derived from?

Sheep's wool

What physical properties characterize lanolin?

It is one of the softest waxes and it is easily absorbed

What is carnauba wax derived from?

The carnauba palm of Brazil

What physical properties characterize carnauba wax?

It is one of the hardest waxes and it repels water

Lipids without fatty acids are usually composed of what?


Terpenes make up what kinds of lipids?

Steroids and isoprenoids

Terpenes are formed by the combination of two or more molecules of what?

2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene)

A monoterpene (C10) consists of two what?


What are two types of triterpenes?

Squalene and lanosterol

What is an example of a tetraterpene?