• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Animal that obtains their nutrition by eating other organisms
Animal that traps solar energy through photosynthesis and uses it to synthesize all of their components
Metabolic rate
Measure of the overall energy needs that must be met by the animal’s food
What components of food make up energy?

(list them in the order that they are metabolized in the body)
1) Carbohydrates
2) Fats
3) Proteins
Where are carbs stored and what as?
Stored in LIVER and MUSCLE cells as GLYCOGEN
What is the most important form of stored energy?

- More energy per gram than glycogen
- Stored with little associated water, making it more compact
Tell me about PROTEIN...
NOT used to store energy but it can be used as a last resort
Disease in which a person has too little protein to support body functions
Essential Amino Acids
Amino acids that must be aquired through food because they cannot be synthesized by the body
What is an example of a group of essential nutrients?

What do they function as?
- They function as coenzymes

Absorb nutrients from dead organic matter

(ex. protists and fungi)

Actively feed on dead organic material

(ex. earthworms and crabs)

Animals that feed on living organisms

- Herbivores
- Carnivores
- Omnivores
Filter feeders

Filter organisms from the aquatic environment

(ex. some whales)
Fluid feeders

Obtain food from the fluids produced by various organisms

(ex. mammals)
What type of teeth DON'T herbivores use?
Canine teeth
How do nutrients enter the body?
By crossing the plasma membranes of cells lining the gut
What have the parts of the gut that absorb nutrients evolved and why?
- Present large surface areas to maximize nutrient absorption
How many layers of tissue does the veterbrate gut have?

What is the first/outermost layer called?
- 4 layers

- Mucosa
A wave of smooth muscle contraction that pushes food from the esophagus into the stomach
What is the major enzyme produced by the stomach?
What is the function of Hydrochloric acid (HCl)?
- Maintains a pH level of 1-3 in stomach fluid
- Activates the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin
What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
Coats the walls of the stomach and protects them from being eroded and digested by HCl and pepsin
Acidic mixture of gastric juice and partially digested food
Where do peristaltic contractions of the stomach move chyme?
From stomach to intestine via pyloric sphincter
What happens in the small intestine? (what continues/begins)

How long is it?
- The digestion of carbs and proteins continues
- Digestion of fats and absorption of nutrients begins

- 6 meters long
What is the function of BILE?

Where is it secreted and where is it stored?
- Emulsifer: substance that prevents oil droplets from aggregatung (lumping together)
- Digests fats

- Secreted by the LIVER
- Stored in the GALLBLADDER
What is the function of the PANCREAS?

(what does the pancreas produce and what does it function as?)
Neutralizes the pH of chyme from the stomach
- Enzymes
- Bicarbonate solution

- Functions as both an endocrine and an exocrine gland
The small fat particles surrounded by bile molecules
What is bile synthesized from?
What is the function of the COLON?
- Absorbs water and ions
- Produces semisolid feces from indigestible material
What is the function of the LIVER?
Directs traffic of nutrients that fuel metabolism
- Interconverts fuel molecules
- Controls glucogenesis
Process in which the liver converts certain amino acids and other molecules into GLUCOSE
What happens during the absorptive period?
Blood glucose gets too high so the pancreas releases INSULIN which causes glucose to be stored as GLYCOGEN
What happens during the post-absorptive period?
Blood glucose gets too low so the pancreas produces GLUCAGON which stimulates the liver to produce glucose (glycogen breaks back down in glucose) by glucogenesis
The increased concentration of toxins in predators that eat contaminated prey