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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A change in a membrane potential from +30 mV to -70 mV is an example of
A threshold potential is
the point at which there is an explosive increase in Na+ or Ca2+ permeability
Graded potentials
are local changes in membrane potential that occur in varying degrees of magnitude, and serve as short-distance signals
The rising phase of the action potential is due to
sodium influx
Myelinated axons conduct impulses much faster because

A. The myelin insulates the axon
B. Channels only have to open at the nodes
C. Voltage is not lost along myelinated areas
D. Saltatory conduction occurs
E. All of these
E. All of these
At the peak of an action potential:
The concentration gradient for K+ tends to move this ion out of the cell, and K+ permeability greatly increases
The absolute refractory period
refers to a period when the membrane cannot undergo another action potential and places an upper limit on the frequency with which a neuron can conduct action potentials
Sequence the following events correctly.
1. Neurotransmitter diffuses across cleft
2. Calcium induces exocytosis of neurotransmitter
3. Permeability of postsynaptic membrane altered
4. Ion channels open
5. Neurotransmitter binds to receptor
In divergence
An axon branches to synapse with many cells so that activity in one neuron influences the excitability of many other cells
The nodes of Ranvier are
breaks in the myelin covering
Drugs may influence synaptic transmission by
A. altering the formation of neurotransmitters
B. blocking neurotransmitter reuptake
C. blocking receptors
D. blocking channels
E. all of these
E. all of these
The normal sequence of structures activated for signal transmission and response in the body is
receptor->afferent neuron->interneuron->efferent neuron->effector
Afferent neurons
transmit messages to the spinal cord
Which type of cell lines the ventricles of the brain?
ependymal cells
Which of the following is not a function of astrocytes?
Line the internal cavities of the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrospinal fluid
is formed by the choroid plexus
The arachnoid mater is
a delicate, richly vascularized meningeal layer that is "cobwebby" in appearance
The region of the brain that is the oldest in evolutionary development is the
brain stem
The sense of body position is
Most of the cranial nerves originate from the
brain stem
The peripheral nervous system includes
24 cranial nerves
Which of the following is a monosynaptic reflex?
stretch reflex
exist that are specific for every modality in the environment, and when stimulated enough may cause Na+ channels in the afferent neuron membrane to open
Receptor potentials
are graded potentials
Polymodal nociceptors
activate the slow pain pathway
The smaller the receptive fields in a region, the
greater the density of receptors in the region and greater the acuity in the region
Endorphins and enkephalins
are endogenous morphine-like substances, important in the body's natural analgesic system
Select the incorrect statement about slow pain
It is carried by large, myelinated A-delta fibers
The retina
contains the photoreceptors
During accommodation for near vision, the
lens becomes stronger
The blind spot
is the point on the retina at which the optic nerve leaves and blood vessels pass through
Which of the following is the proper sequence of retinal processing?
rods and cones - bipolar cells - ganglion cells
Vitamin A deficiency causes
poor night vision
The pitch of sound
is determined by the frequency of vibrations of air molecules
Fluid movement in the cochlea causes
displacement of the round window, which dissipates pressure
The auditory cortex is in the ________ lobe of the cerebral cortex
Actual conversion of sound vibrations to nerve impulses occurs in the
Sour tastes represents stimuli caused by
Olfactory receptors
A. are specialized endings of afferent neurons, not separate cells
B. when stimulated send impulses both to the limbic system for coordination between smell and behavior and to the thalamus and cortex for perception of smell
C. are replaced about every two months
D. are located in the olfactory mucosa
E. all of these
E. all of these
The structure associated with pheromonal reception is
vomeronasal organ
The autonomic nervous system is
the involuntary branch of the peripheral nervous system's efferent division
Which is not a characteristic of sympathetic pathways?
Preganglionic fibers release norepinepherine
Postganglionic autonomic fibers
have numerous varicosities that simultaneously release neurotransmitter over a large area of the innervated organ rather than on single cells
Select the incorrect statement about the parasympathetic nervous system
It inhibits all cardiac muscle and smooth muscle
Sympathetic stimulation _____ heart rate and ______ the motility in the digestive tract
increases; decreases
Nicotinic receptors
respond to ACH released from sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic fibers
inactivates a neurotransmitter
Which type of receptor binds to norepinephrine on cardiac muscle, thus increasing cardiac activity?
Select the correct statement about the neuromuscular junction
it is always excitatory
What would occur is ACh was not removed from the nicotinic receptors on skeletal muscle cells?
The cell would remain contracted until fatigued, and sodium would continue to move into the cell causing excitation