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73 Cards in this Set

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One of the alternative forms of a single gene. In pea plants a songle gene codes for seed color and it comes in two alleles one codes for yellow seeds, and the other codes green.
The end of the transfer RNA molecule that can bind with a particular codon on the mRNA transcript.
A condition in which an individual organism has either more of fewer chromosomes than is usually found in their species.
Alternative splicing
A process in genetics in which a single primary transcript can be edited in different ways to yield multiple messenger RNAs, which in turns yields multiple proteins.
A condition is which two alleles of a given gene have different phenotypic effects, with both effects manifesting in organism that are heterozygous for the gene.
Crossing over
(genetic recombination) A process, occurring during meiosis, in which homologous chromosomes exchange reciprocal portions of themselves.
An mRNA triplet that codes for a single amino acid or a start or stop command in the translation stage of of protein synthesis.
A person who does not suffer from a recessive genetic debilitation, but who carries an allele for the condition that can be passed along to offspring.
A cellular structure that acts an an organizing center for the assembly of microtubules.
One of the two identical strand of chromatin (DNA plus associated protein) that make up a chromosome in it duplicated state.
Autosomal dominate disorder
A genetic disorder caused by a single faulty allele on an autosome.
Structural unit containing part of all of an organism's genome, consisting of DNA its associated proteins(chromatin).
The physical separation of one cell into two daughter cells
Dihybrid cross
An experimental croos in which the plats used differ in two of their characters. Breeding for 2 characteristics.
Posses two sets of chromosomes . All human cells are diploid except human gametes (egg and sperm).
A chromosomal condition in which a piece of a chromosome has been lost. Occurs when a chromosomal fragment that breaks off does not rejoin any chromosomes.
Down syndrome
A disorder in human in which affected individuals usually have three copies of chromosome 21 rather than the standard 2.
DNA polymerase
An enzyme that separates the strands of DNA into 2 parental strands and corrects errors.
non sex chromosomes
The genetic makeup of organism, including all the genes that lie along its chromosomes.
Possessing two different alleles of a gene for a given character.
Possessing a single set of chromosomes. Human gametes (eggs and sperm).
Homologous chromosomes
Chromosomes that are the same in function and size.Species that are diploid have matching pairs homologous chromosomes.
A chromosomal abnormality that comes about when a chromosome fragment rejoins a chromosome with inverted orientation.
Incomplete dominance
Meaning a genetic condition in which the heterozygote phenotype is intermediate between either of the homologous phenotypes.
A pictorial arrangement of a full set of an organism's chromosomes.
Law of independent assortment
During gamete formation, gene pairs assort independently of one another.
Law of segregation
Differing character in organisms result from two genetic elements(alleles) that separate in gamete formation, so that each gamete gets only one of two alleles.
Monohybrid cross
An experimental cross in which organisms are tested for differences in one character.Breeding organism for a single difference.
Having two identical alleles of a gene for a given character.
A haploid reproductive cell,either egg sperm.
A complete haploid set of an organisms genetic information.
A type of rNA that encodes and carries to ribosomes, and contains information for the synthesis of proteins.
A permanent alteration of a DNA base sequence.
Multiple allelels
Three or more alleles--- alternative forms of a gene---occurring in a population
Mitotic spindle
The microtubules active in cell division, including those that align a move chromosomes.
A family history of genetically transmissible conditions; generally taking the form of a diagram
The building blocks of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA, consisting of a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base.
Metaphase plate
A plane located midway between the poles of a dividing cell.
Diploid cells that are the starting female cells in gamete(egg) production. Diploid oogonia develop into diploid primary oocytes, which create haploid secondary oocytes.
First filial generation
The offspring of the parental generation in an experimental cross.
Primary oocyte
A diploid cell cell produced in females that may mature into an egg, by creating a primary oocyte.
Primary spermatocyte
A diploid cell in a male that will undergo meiosis to produce haploid secondary spermatocytes which ultimately create mature sperm.
A condition in which one or more entire sets of chromosomes has been added to the genome of a diploid organism.
A physiological feature, bodily characteristics, or behavior of an organism.
Parental generation (P)
The generation that begins a experimental cross between organisms.
A series of amino acids linked together in a linear fashion.
Polygenic Inheritance
Inheritance of a genetic character that is determined the interaction of multiple genes, with each gene having a small additive effect on the character.
Point mutation
A mutation of a single base pair in a genome.
The swapping of fragments by non-homologous chromosomes, resulting in gene sequences that are out of order on both chromosomes.
A failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to seperate.
A type of DNA that, along with proteins, form ribosomes.
Diploid cells that are the starting in sperm production. They are reproductive stems cells that, when dividing each of them produces one primary spermatocyte.
In protein synthesis, a form of RNA that binds with amino acids, transfers the to ribosomes, and then binds with a mRNA .
A gene that is not expressed in a heterozygous condition.
Somatic cell
Any cell that is not or will not become an egg or sperm.
In protein synthesis, the process in which DNA's information is copied onto mRNA.
The process in which a polypeptide chain is produced within a ribosome based on the information encoded in the mRNA.
RNA polymerase
The transcription phase of protein synthesis, the enzyme the unwinds the DNA double helix and puts together a chain of RNA nucleotides complementary to the exposed DNA nucleotides.
Sister Chromatids
Make up a single chromosome.
Dominant disorder
A genetic disorder in which a single faulty allele can cause damage,even when a second functional allele is present.
The stages of mitosis
End of interphase: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis.
The stages of meiosis
Prophase 1, metephase 1, anaphase,telophase 1,

prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2,telophase 2
How to make a Punnet square
Drawing a square divided into 4s.Write 2 alleles on top on from the mother and two on the side from the father. Write the genotype in the corresponding box where mother and father gametes combine.
Examples of autosomal dominant disorders
Huntington disease, marfan syndrom, polydactyly.
Example of autosomal recessive disorders
Sickle-cell anemia, albinism, cystic fibrosis, tay-sachs disease, werner syndrome.
Examples of sex linked genetic disorders
Red-green color-blindness, hemophilia, duchenne muscular dystrophy.
How sperm is formed
Diploid spermatogonim produce a primary spermatocyte that goes through meiosis 1 yielding two haploid secondary spermatocytes.The secondary permatocytes go through meiosis 2, yielding 4 haploid spermatids.
Polyploidy and Aneuploidy
Polyploidy are organisms with more than two sets. Aneuploidy has more or fewer chromosomes than what normally exist in their species.
The process of DNA Replication
Enzymes called helicase unwinds the double helix, separating its two strands making it available for base pairing. DNA polymerases move along each strand, joining together nucleotides as they are added one by one to form the new complementary strands of DNA.
How eggs are formed
Ogonium develops into a primary oocyte that enters meiosis 1. Unequal division of cell material lead to the productio of one polar body and one secondary oocyte which enters meiosis 2. Only fertiized eggs will complete meiosis 2. one egg results,3 polar bodies that were produced by meiosis 1 and 2 will be discarded.
Process of transcription
RNA polymerase unwind a section of DNA and strings together a string of nucleotides that are complementary to the DNA bases.
Process of translation
MRNA bind to a ribosome's A codon site. A tRNA molecule with appropriate anticodon sequence binds to the A codon caring its appropriate amino acid.