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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


Biological way of classifying, identifying and naming different species


Two part Latin name of species. First part is the genus and the second is the distinguishing factor between the genus.

Order of Systems

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species (In descending order)

Natural Selection

Organisms with better traits will have a higher chance of passing them on

Evolutionary adaptions

Diverse modifications that fit them into a specific environment.

Fossil Record

The ordered sequence of fossils as they appear in rock layers.


Similarities in species resulting from common ancestors

Homologous Structures

Similar features that serve a different function (Bones forearms of different species like fish, birds, humans, etc..)

Vestigial Structures

Remnants of features that served important functions that are no longer useful (tail-bone)

Evolutionary tree

Patterns of decent and lineage shown in a tree so we can trace back our ancestor crap

Artificial selection

Selective breeding of plants or animals for specific features

Sources of Genetic Variation

Mutation, sexual reproduction


New alleles are created or expressed, new combinations arise which make new genotypes

Sexual reproduction

New combinations of genes arise from different sexual partners

Gene pool

The copies of every type of allele at every locus in the population

Punnit's Square Math

Multiply the frequency of a gene by the other gene and you get the chance of it being expressed

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

Non-evolving population that's in genetic equililbrium


Changes in alleles between generations (one to another) so no significant changes.

Genetic Drift

Smaller sample sizes of populations result in random variation of genetics

Bottleneck Effect

When natural disasters destroy a part of a population which only leaves a portion of the population left which can misrepresent the gene pool of that species

Founder Effect

When a small part of a population colonizes on an island or a remote part of the world, which misrepresents the gene pool of that species

Gene Flow

Genetic exchanges between populations of animals

Relative fitness (evolutionary fitness)

Traits that let certain organisms pass them on to future generations. Higher success rate compared to other people.

Three outcomes of natural selection

Directional selection, Disruptive selection and stabilizing selection

Directional Selection

Shifts the overall makeup of a population by selecting in favor of one extreme phenotype. Usually happens when a population migrates or when a local environment changes

Disruptive Selection

A balance between two or more contrasting phenotype's in a population. Usually results from a patchy environment.

Stabilizing Selection

Eliminates extreme phenotype's leaving only intermediate phenotype's.