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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

phylogenetic tree

shows relationships


whos related to whom and where did it come from

phenetic vs phylogenetic tree

phenetic= superficial similarities

phylogenetic = reflect evolutionary relationships

depict where things came from not how they look like today

monophyletic group

same ancestor and all its decendents

defined by inclusion

paraphyletic group

common ancestor but not all descendents

defined by exclusion.

Made to map out ways of making a living rather than ancestry,

Not very good

polyphyletic group

no most common recent ancestor

but different groups s

sister groups

species or taxa that are eachothers closet relatives.

are always monophyletic

how do we build phylogenetic trees

we build trees using characters,


each character provides a hypothesis of relationship, molecular, morphological



type of character tree



type of character for tree


really defines species. this is a type of character only seen in this clade/ taxa.

sets it apart

rooted versus unrooted: tree

rooted= follows temporal path

unrooted= does not follow temporal path

Parsimony: tree

based on Occam's Razor, always pick the shortest tree

minimum number of evolutionary changes

cons: this may be wrong hypothesis not based on biology

neighbor joining: tree

takes a sequence matrix, uses distances among genes or taxa to build tree

maximum likelihood: tree

modern way

takes a set of molecular data, only,

hypothesis : give computer model of how likely sequences of genes are going to change .

use model of change, make multiple topologies

Makes multiple trees, with a percentage of how likely it fits based on the your model.95 100

fossil record: divergence time

is a minimum estimate of time because it is incomplete. not everything becomes a fossil.

even fossil may have evolved earlier.

molecular time

genetic distance between 2 species is a function of time past. will accumulate more mutations as time since divergence happened

genetic distance

% sequence divergence between taxa, calibrated by fossil records

evolutionary rates / clock

NOT constant. different genes evolve at different rates.

poor calibration = wrong rates

missing branches problem

missing taxon from tree. may have not been sampled yet, extinct,

the age of each taxon/ species is anchored to its sister. each node is anchored by two species, may make the node appear older than it is.

gives older ages

biforcating versus budding phylogeny

biforcating= internal branches