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213 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anything a person says or does
Explain the difference between a behavior and a product of a behavior.
Behavior--is anything you say or do.

Product of a behavior--The result of a behavior (ex: Getting an A in class is a product of studying).
Overt behavior
Behavior that is visible
Covert behavior
Behavior that is private, internal
Cognitive behaviors
AKA covert behaviors
Dimensions of behavior and name them
Characteristics of behaviors that can be measured; duration, frequency, intensity
Length of time a behavior lasts
Number of times a behavior occurs
Physical effort or energy involved in emitting the behavior
Behavioral deficit
Too little of a behavior
Behavioral excess
Too much of a behavior
3 Disadvantages for using summary labels for behaviors
1) May lead to pseudo-explanations (false) of behavior
2) Labels can negatively affect the way an individual might be treated
3) Can direct focus to an individuals' problem behaviors rather than to the individual's strengths
The people, objects, and events currently present in one's immediate surroundings
Characteristics of behavior modification
1) Strong emphasis on defining problems in terms of behavior that can be measured and using changes in behavior as the best indicator of whether or not the problem is being solved.

2)Treatment procedures focus on ways of altering an individual's current environment to help individual function more fully

3) Precise description of methods and rationales

4) Techniques are often applied by individuals in everyday life.

5) Techniques come from basic and applied research in operant and respondent conditioning

6) Emphasizes scientific demonstration that a particular intervention was responsible for a particular behavior change

7) High value on accountability for everyone involved
Behavior modification
The systematic application of learning principles and techniques to assess and improve individuals' covert and overt behaviors in order to enhance their daily functioning
Target behaviors
Behaviors to be improved
Behavioral assessment
the collection and analysis of information and data in order to
1) identify and describe target behaviors

2) Identify possible causes of the behavior

3) Guide the selection of an appropriate behavioral treatment

4) Evaluate treatment outcome
Behavior analysis
The scientific study of laws that govern the behavior of human beings and other animals
Dimensions of behavior analysis
A) Measure of socially significant bx

B) Emphasis on operant conditioning as treatment

C) An attempt to clearly demonstrate that ABA was responsible for the improvement in the behavior

D) Generalizable and long-lasting improvements in behavior
What is the difference between behavior modification and applied behavior analysis?
Behavior modification-uses operant and classical conditioning

Applied behavior analysis-mainly operant conditioning only
5 areas in which behavior modification is being applied
Clinical psychology
4 behaviors of children that have been improved by the application of behavior modification by parents
Toilet training
Household chores
What is PSI?
Personalized System of Instruction
Who was the founder of PSI?
Fred S. Keller
8 Characteristics of PSI
1) Study questions are provided.
2) Students study small amount of material for each test

3) Frequent tests

4) Mastery criteria so students must demonstrate mastery at a particular level before going on to the next levels

5) No penalty for failing to show mastery; simply restudy and try again

6) Uses proctors to score tests immediately and provide feedback on study performance

7) Incorporates a "go-at-your-own-pace" feature

8) Lectures used primarily motivation and demonstration
What is currently the preferred term for the disability historically referred to as Mental Retardation
Intellectual Disability
3 forces that have revolutionized the lives of people with ID
1) Normalization advocates

2) Legal rights for of people w/ID to receive appropriate education

3) To improve behavior of people with ID using behav.
4 behaviors in persons with ID that have been modified by behavior. mod
Social skills
Vocational skills
3 behaviors in persons with autism that have been modified by behavior mod.
Social behaviors
Language development
4 behaviors in persons with schizophrenia that have been modified by behavior mod.
Positive social interactions
Communication skills
Assertiveness skills
Job-finding skills
What is currently the preferred term for the disability historically referred to as mental retardation?
Intellectual Disability
3 forces that have revolutionized the education of person with ID since the 1960s
Normalization advocates--said that person with ID should be helped to lead the most normative lives possible and that traditional large institutions were not normative. This led to deinstitutionalization of people with ID and the development of community living options for people with ID.

Civil rights advocates and parents of people with ID--secured legal rights of individuals with severed disabilities to receive as normal an education as possible (public education).

Behavior modifiers--used their technology to dramatically improve the behavior of persons with severe and profound ID
4 behaviors in person with ID that have been modified by behavior modification
Self-help skills
Social skills
4 behaviors in person with autism that have been modified by behavior modification
Social skills
Language skills
Self-help skills
Elimination of self-stem behaviors
4 behaviors in person with schizophrenia that have been modified by behavior modification
Social skills
Communication skills
Assertiveness skills
Job-finding skills
4 behaviors in the area of self-management of personal problems that have been modified by behavior modification
Saving money
Increasing exercise behavior
Improving study habits
Controlling gambling
What is health psychology?
Considers how psychological factors can influence or cause illness and how people can be encouraged to practice healthy behavior to prevent health problems
5 areas of application within health psychology
Direct treatment of medical problems

Establishing treatment compliance

Promotion of healthy living

Management of caregivers

Stress management
4 behaviors of elderly persons that have been improved with behavior modification
New routines for daily living

Anxiety and fear

Disruptive behaviors

Forming of new relationships with professional care stuff
What is behavioral community psychology?
Applications to socially significant problems in unstructured community settings where the behavior of individuals is not considered deviant in the traditional sense
5 current trends in behavioral community applications
1) Greater involvement of the target populations in all aspects of the intervention process

2) Increased fostering of the target individual' personal control (vs control by professionals

3) Increased inclusion of subjective assessments when evaluating treatment outcomes

4) Increased emphasis on antecedent events vs consequent events

5) Greater interdisciplinary collaboration among professionals
What is organizational behavior management?
Application of behavioral principles and methods to the study and control of individual or group behavior within organizational settings
4 behaviors in business, industry, or government that have been modified by behavior mod
Improve productivity

Decrease tardiness and absenteeism

Increase sales volume

Improve worker safety
4 general areas of sports psychology in which behavior mod has been applied
Techniques for improving skills of athletes

Strategies for motivating practice and endurance training

Changing the behavior of coaches

"Sports Psyching" to prepare for competition
Positive reinforcer
A stimulus, that when presented, increases behavior
Positive reinforcement
The presentation of a stimulus increases the probability of a behavior
Operant behaviors
Behaviors that operate on the environment to generate consequences
What is a baseline?
Observation phase before intervention
In what ways is positive reinforcement like gravity?
It is a law..like the law of gravity.
What are the factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement?
1) Behavior to be increased should be defined specifically (operational def.)

2) Choose the right reinforcer.

3) Consider motivating operations.

4) Reinforcer size should be correction (is it worth it to work that hard to get what individual is getting as the reward)?

5) Give instructions (tell the rules of the game).

6) Reinforcer should be given immediately (or something to bridge the gap in the case of delayed reinforcement).

7) Consider contingent vs noncontingent reinforcement

8) Fade reinforcers to natural reinforcers.
Negative reinforcement
Removal of a stimulus will increase behavior (escape conditioning)
Premack Principle
Use a high probability behavior to reinforce a low probability behavior.
The time during which an individual does not experience a particular reinforcer
A condition in which an individual has experienced a particular reinforcer too much
Motivating operations
Events or conditions that:

a) temporarily alter the effectiveness of a reinforcer

b) alter the frequency of behavior reinforced by that reinforcer
Direct effect of a positive reinforcer
The increased frequency of a response because it was immediately followed by a reinforcer
Indirect effect a positive reinforcer
The strengthening of a response even though the reinforcer is delayed
Contingent reinforcement
A specific behavior must occur before a reinforcer is presented.
Noncontingent reinforcement
A reinforcer is presented at particular times regardless of the preceding behavior.
Natural environment
A setting in which an individual carries out normal, everyday functions
Natural reinforcers
Reinforcers that occur in the natural environment.
Programmed reinforcers
Reinforcers that are arranged systematically by psychologists, teachers, and others in behavior mod programs
Adventitious reinforcement
Behavior accidentally followed by a reinforcer and strengthens that behavior even if it did not actually produce the reinforcer
Superstitious behavior
Behavior that is strengthened and maintained by accidental reinforcement
Pertaining to the navel.

"It is alway the individual's performance that tells you whether or not you have selected an effective reinforcer." Explain what this means.
If when deliering the reinforcer, the target behavior increases, then you have selected an effective reinforcer. If target behavior does not increase, then reinforcer is not effective enough.
3 indicators that a behavior change is due to an indirect vs a direct effect of a reinforcer:
1) Target response precedes the reinforcer by more than 30 seconds.

2) The behavior that is measured shows some increase in strength prior to the first occurrence of the consequence.

3) A single occurrence of the consequence produces a large change in behavior
Unconditioned reinforcers
Stimuli that are reinforcing without prior learning or conditioning
Conditioned reinforcers
Stimuli that were not originally reinforcing but have become reinforcers by being paired or associated with other reinforcers
Backup reinforcers
A stimulus that is paired with other stimuli to cause it to become a conditioned reinforcer
Conditioned reinforcers that can be accumulated and exchanged for backup reinforcers
Token economy
A behavior modification program in which individuals can earn tokens for specific behaviors and can cash in their tokens for backup reinforcers
Conditioned punisher
A stimulus that is paired with punishment becomes punishing itself. (e.g., No! and Stop that!)
Factors influencing the effectiveness of conditioned reinforcement
1) The strength of backup reinforcers

2) The variety of backup reinforcers

3) The number of pairings with a backup reinforcer

4) Loss of value of a conditioned reinforcer
Simple conditioned reinforcer
A conditioned reinforcer that is paired with a single backup reinforcer
Generalized conditioned reinforcer
A stimulus that is paired with more than one kind of backup reinforcer
What are the two types of extinction?
Operant and respondent
No longer reinforcing a previously reinforced behavior
What is the difference between forgetting and extinction?
In forgetting, a behavior is weakened as a function of time following its last occurrence. Extinction weakens behavior as a result of being emitted without being reinforced.
Factors influencing the effectiveness of extinction
1) Controlling reinforcers for the behavior that is to be decreased

2) Extinction combined with positive reinforcement for an alternative behavior

3) The setting in which extinction is carried out

4) Use instructions--tell them how it is going to work

5) Extinction is quicker after continuous reinforcement.

6) Behavior being extinguished may get worse before it gets better--extinction burst

7) Extinction may produce aggression.

8) Extinguished behavior may appear after a delay--spontaneous recovery
Continuous reinforcement
Reinforcement of every response
Intermittent reinforcement
Occasional reinforcement of a behavior
If a behavior that was maintained by positive reinforcement is not reinforced at least once in while, what will happen to the behavior?
It will be extinguished.
Why is it necessary to consider the setting as a factor influencing your extinction program?
It may not be appropriate to implement extinction in certain settings like public places given the extinction burst and possible aggression.
What is the effect of continuous vs intermittent reinforcement on the resistance to the extinction of a behavior?
Behavior maintained by continuous reinforcement will be much easier to extinguish compared to behavior maintained by intermittent reinforcement.
Extinction burst
An increase in responding during extinction
Spontaneous recovery
The reappearance of an extinguished behavior following a rest
Bootleg reinforcement
Unwanted reinforcement during extinction
Schedule of reinforcement
A rule that tells when reinforcement will be available
What is the simplest schedule of reinforcement?
Continuous reinforcement
What is the opposite of continuous reinforcement?
While a behavior is being conditioned or learned, it is said to be in the ________ phase.
After a behavior is well learned it is said to be in the _______ phase.
What schedule of reinforcement is best for the acquisition phase of a behavior?
Continuous reinforcement
What schedule of reinforcement is best for the maintenance phase of a behavior?
Intermittent reinforcement
Free-operant procedure
Individual responds whenever he wants.
Discrete trial procedure
SD is presented, response is made, consequence is given. Next response cannot occur until another SD is presented.
List 4 advantages of intermittent over continuous reinforcement for maintaining behavior
1) The reinforcer remains effective longer because satiation takes place more slowly.

2) Behavior that has been reinforced intermittently tends to take longer to extinguish.

3) Individuals work more consistently on certain intermittent schedules.

4) Behavior that has been reinforced intermittently is more likely to persist after being transferred to reinforcers in the natural environment.
Fixed-ratio schedule (FR)
A reinforcer occurs each time a fixed number of responses of a particular type are emitted.
Ratio strain
Deterioration of responding from increasing an FR schedule too rapidly
Which schedule of reinforcement produces a high steady rate of responding until reinforcement?
Which schedule of reinforcement produces a post reinforcement pause?
What is the relationship between the value of the FR and the length of the post reinforcement pause?
The length of the post reinforcement pause depends on the value of the FR--the higher the value, the longer the pause
Progressive ratio schedule
Like an FR, but the ratio requirement increases by a specified amount after each reinforcer.
Variable ratio schedule (VR)
A reinforcer occurs after a certain number of a particular response, and the number of responses required is unpredictable
What is the typical effect of a PR schedule?
An increasingly longer pause after each successive reinforcer and an indefinitely long pause at the break point.
What is the main application of the PR schedule?
To determine how powerful a particular reinforcer is for a particular individual. The higher the reinforcer's break point, the more effective the reinforcer is likely to be in a treatment program for that individual.
What are 3 characteristic effects of an FR schedule?
1) High rate of responding

2) Post reinforcement pause

3) High resistance to extinction
How is a VR schedule similar to an FR schedule?
High rate of responding
How is VR schedule different from an FR schedule?
VR schedule

1) Has minimal or no post reinforcement pause

2) Can be increased more abruptly without ratio strain

3) Values of VR that can maintain responding are somewhat higher than FR.

4) Higher resistance to extinction than FR schedules of the same value
Characteristic effects of VR schedules
High steady rate of responding

No or minimal post reinforcement pause

High resistance to extinction
Fixed Interval Schedule (FI)
A reinforcer is presented following the first instance of a specific response after a fixed time period.
When judging whether a behavior is reinforced on a FI schedule, what are two questions you should ask yourself?
1) Does reinforcement require only one response after a fixed interval of time? Yes

2) Does responding during the interval affect anything? No
Variable Interval schedule (VI)
A reinforcer is presented following the first instance of a specific response after an interval of time, and the length of the interval changes unpredictably from one reinforcer to the next.
Limited hold
A finite amount of time for which reinforcement is available
Why are simple interval schedules not often used in training programs?
1) FI produces long post reinforcement pauses.

2) VI generates lower response rate than ratio schedules.

3) Simple schedules require continuous monitoring of behavior after the end of each interval until a response occurs.
Explain what a FI/LH schedule is.
Reinforcer is available only after the specified amount of time (FI) and is available FOR only a specified amount of time (LH).
Describe how an FI/LH schedule is procedurally similar to a simple FI schedule. How is it different?
In both, a certain amount of time has to pass before reinforcement is availabe. With limited hold, behavior can occur for that specified amount of time AFTER the interval is complete.
Explain what a VI/LH schedule is.
An unpredictable amount of time has to pass before reinforcement is available, and the behavior can occur for a specified amount of time AFTER the interval is complete.
What are 3 characteristic effects of a VI/LH schedule?
High steady rate of responding

No post reinforcement pause

No ratio strain
Fixed-duration schedule (FD)
A reinforcer is presented only if a behavior occurs continuously for a fixed period of time.
Variable-duration schedule (VD)
A reinforcer is presented only if a behavior occurs continuously for a fixed period of time, and the interval of time from reinforcer to reinforcer changes unpredictably.
How are FD and VD schedules similar?
Both produce long periods of continuous behavior.
How are FD and VD schedules different?
FD schedule produces a post reinforcement pause, VD doesn't.
Concurrent schedules of reinforcement
Each of two or more behaviors is reinforced on different schedules at the same time.
If an individual has an option of engaging in 2 or more behaviors that are reinforced on different schedules by different reinforcers, what 4 factors in combination are likely to determine the response that the person will make?
1) Types of schedules that are operating

2) The immediacy of reinforcement

3) The magnitude of reinforcement

4) The response effort involved in the different options
Differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL)
A reinforcer is presented ONLY if a particular response occurs at a low rate.
Limited-responding DRL
Specifies a maximum allowable number of responses during a certain time interval in order for a reinforcer to occur.
In what 2 conditions can limited-responding DRL work?
1) Some of the behavior is tolerable but 2) Less of it is better
Spaced-responding DRL
A specified behavior must not occur during a specified interval, and after the interval has passed, an instance of that behavior must occur in order to get a reinforcer. In other words, instances of behavior must be spaced out over time.
When is spaced-responding DRL helpful?
When the behavior you want to reduce is actually desirable as long as it doesn't occur at too high a rate
What is the difference between spaced-responding DRL and limited-responding DRL?
In spaced-responding DRL, a behavior must occur to obtain the reinforcer. In limited-responding, the behavior doesn't have to occur to obtain the reinforcer.
What is the difference between spaced-responding DRL and an FD schedule?
FD--A behavior must occur throughout the specified interval.

Spaced-responding DRL-employs the sequence of respond-wait-respond
Differential reinforcement of zero responding (DRO)
A reinforcer is presented ONLY if a specified response does NOT occur during a specified period of time.
Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI)
Reinforcement of a behavior that is incompatible with the target behavior.
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA)
Extinction of a problem behavior + reinforcement of an alternative behavior that is not necessarily incompatible with the problem behavior
What happens if the frequency of reinforcement on DRL, DRO, DRI, or DRA is too low or is decreased too rapidly?
The learner learns that more reinforcement occurs when performance is at a low rate.
Antecedent stimuli
The stimuli that exist just prior to the occurrence of the behavior
Any situation in which behavior occurs can be analyzed in terms of what three sets of events?
Explain what happens when a behavior is reinforced in the presence of a particular stimulus but not others.
Stimulus control
When a particular behavior is more likely to occur in the presence of a particular stimulus but not others, what does this mean?
The behavior is under the control of that stimulus.
Stimulus control
The degree of correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and the occurrence of a subsequent response
Good/effective stimulus control
When a particular stimulus occurs, the response is likely to follow.
Discriminative stimulus (SD)
A stimulus that tells that a reinforcer is available
A stimulus in the presence of which a response will not be reinforced
What is the difference between stimulus and discriminative stimulus?
Stimulus--any thing in the immediate environment

SD--A stimulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced.
Stimulus discrimination training
The procedure of reinforcing a response in presense of an SD and extinguishing a response in the presence of an SΔ
After sufficient stimulus discrimination training, what are the effects possible?
Good stimulus control

Stimulus discrimination
Stimulus discrimination
A response occurs to an SD, not an SΔ
Stimulus generalization
One stimuli-many responses
Common-element stimulus class
A set of stimuli, all of which have one ore more physical characteristics in common

AKA stimulus class
Stimulus equivalence class
A set of completely dissimilar stimuli that an individual has learned to group or match together
What is the difference between an instance of stimulus discrimination and an instance of stimulus generalization?
Stimulus discrimination--one stimulus, one response

Stimulus generalization--one response, many stimuli
What is conceptual behavior?
When an individual responds to all members of a stimulus class and does not emit that response to stimuli that do not belong to the class
What is the primary distinction between stimulus generalization involving common-element stimulus classes and stimulus generalization involving stimulus equivalent classes?
Common-element stimulus class: Has to have at least one physical characteristic common

Stimulus equivalent class: Similarities are conceptual; learned

Example: common-element: Cars have 4 tires
Stimulus equivalent: a pear, milk, and pizza are all foods
Contingency-shaped behavior
Behavior that develops because of its immediate consequences
Rule (from a behavioral perspective)
Describes a situation in which a behavior will lead to a consequence
Rule-governed behavior
Behavior that is controlled by the statement of a rule
When you are considering the selection of a stimulus to be set up as an SD, what 4 questions might you ask yourself about that stimulus?
1) Is the stimulus different from other stimuli along more than 1 dimension (location, size, color, sense modality--vision, hearing, touch, etc.)

2) Is the stimulus one that can be presented only or at least mainly on occasions when the desired response should occur to avoid confusion with the occurrence of the stimulus on other occasions?

3) Is the stimulus of the type that the probability of the person attending to it when it is presented high?

4) Are there any undesirable response that might be controlled by the chose stimulus?
What is meant by error in discrimination training?
A response to an SΔ or a failure to response to an SD
The gradual change over successive trials of an antecedent stimulus that controls a response so that the response eventually occurs to a partially changed or completely new stimulus
Errorless discrimination training/errorless learning
The use of a fading procedure to establish a stimulus discrimination so that no errors occur
Why is errorless learning better than learning with errors?
1) Errors consume valuable time.

2) If an error occurs once, it occurs many times.

3) The non reinforcement that occurs when errors are being extinguished often produces side effects such as tantrums, aggressive behavior, and attempts to escape from the situation.
What is the dimension of a stimulus?
Any characteristic that can be measured on some continuum
A supplemental antecedent stimulus provided to increase the likelihood that a desired behavior will occur
Name the different types of prompts
What are environmental prompts?
Alterations to the physical environment in a manner that will evoke the desired behavior
Extra-stimulus prompt
Something that is added to the environment to make a correct response more likely
Within-stimulus prompt
An alteration of the SD or the SΔ to make their characteristics more noticeable and therefore easier to discriminate.
Successive approximations a target behavior
What are the 5 aspects or dimensions of behavior that can be shaped?
What is the difference between shaping and fading?
Fading--gradual change of a stimulus while the response stays about the same

Shaping--gradual change of a response while the stimulus stays about the same
What are the 3 stages of shaping a behavior?
1) Specify the final desired behavior.

2) Identify a response that could be used as a starting point in working toward the final behavior.

3) Reinforce the starting response; then reinforce closer and closer approximations until eventually the desired response occurs
What are the 4 parts of the scientific model?
Observation (from the scientific model)
Basic method of science
Operational definition
Something you can see
Measurement (from the scientific model)
Used to see if behavior increases or decreases with/without treatment
What is inter observer reliability used for?
To make sure that people are observing the same thing/the same behavior
What is observer reactivity?
Behavior improves simply due to person being aware that they are being observed.
Prediction (from the scientific model)
Being able to predict change in behavior
Control (from the scientific model)
Control of the independent/dependent variables
Case study
A single-subject experiment
How does the behavioral model differ from other models?
Bx model---
Deals with current behavior
Behavior as it is
Reaction to behavior itself
Collect precise data
Direct intervention

Other models--
Deal with past behaviors (historical)
Behavior as a symptom
React to mental/medical dimensions of behavior
Intuition or impression
Non-directive intervention
What is the difference between operant conditioning and behavior modification/behavior analysis?
Operant conditioning:
In the lab
Easy reinforcer (food)
No need for inter observer reliability
Immediate reinforcement
Can control for genetic
No need for rapidity of effects

Behavior modification/analysis:
Difficulty finding a reinforcer
Arbitrary responses
Difficulty in measurement
Need for observer reliability
Individual differences in people
Not as great precision and control
Rapidity of effects are needed to show treatment is working.
Name 2 things that affect the Premack Principle.
Deprivation and Satiation
Dependent on a behavior
Independent of a behavior
Functional response class
Responses that serve the same function
Topographical response class
Responses that have the same topography
Conditioned reinforcer
Neutral event paired with a primary reinforcer; neutral event acquires reinforcing qualities
Generalized conditioned reinforcer
Reinforcing properties b/c it's been paired with many reinforcing
Advantages of token economy
1) Bears quantifiable relationship to back up reinforcers (1=5 candies)

2) Portable

3) Can be used to operate automatic devices (vending machines that give tokens)

4) Indestructible

5) Standardized

6) Made unique for the individual

7) No max number that can be possessed
What is one key thing in using response cost in a token economy?
Never take away more than 50% of what a person has earned.
What is the difference in the immediacy of reinforcement of high IQ people vs low IQ people?
Low IQ--reinforcers must be immediate

High IQ--Delays in reinforcement are okay
Reinforcer sampling
Letting people try out the reinforcers
Bridging stimulus
Bridges the time between the behavior and the delivery of the reinforcer
Rules for using tokens
1) Describe the behavior in behavioral terms

2) Act immediately upon behavior

3) Many variations (back up reinforcers)

4) Use bridging stimulus

5) Deliver tokens often

6) Schedule activities at different times

7) Specify place and time for responses

8) Use different people to implement token economy
What maintains toileting?
Negative reinforcement
What skills must kids posses before toilet training can begin?
1) Kids must be under instructional control.

2) Kids must be able to walk.

3) Kids must have physical manual dexterity to lower pants
What do you do when a child you are toilet training has an accident?
Verbal disapproval--NO!
Positive practice of self-toileting
Child puts wets pants in laundry basket
According the Parents and Children video, what are 3 ways that kids learn?
1) Imitation
2) What parents tell them
3) Through consequences
What are 3 things that are associated with extinction?
Extinction burst
Spontaneous recovery
Extinction-induced aggression
Name the 4 types of aggression.
Operant aggression
Organism gains from the aggression--pre-meditated
Respondent aggression
Organism aggresses b/c of a physiological state (i.e., pain)
Frustration-induced aggression
Aggression is not toward the source of aggression

Ex:bad day at work, aggression toward a friend at home
Discriminated extinction
Organism can discriminate when extinction is in effect.
What schedule of reinforcement is associated with fixed action scallop?
What is the disadvantage of DRL?
Behavior that is chosen could be dangerous.
For what kinds of behaviors is FD schedule good for?
Behaviors that can be performed continuously.
What are the 3 types of complex schedules of reinforcement?
What is a chain schedule of reinforcement?
You have to complete one step to get to the next.
What is a conjunctive schedule of reinforcement?
You have to meet the requirements within a time limit:

Ex. Do all 8 math questions within 5 minutes.
Behavioral engineering

Sensory Manipuland at institutions

Bed that lit a light when someone got out of bed.

Cigarette dispensers increase time between cigarettes

Belt that tells when stomach protruded and person should stop eating

Device to straighten shoulder