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80 Cards in this Set

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Bacillus cereus and anthracis; Clostridium - tetani, botulinum, perfringens, difficile

Spore formers

These rascals may microscopically lack color - treponema, ricketssiae, mycobacterium, mycoplasma, legionella, chlamydiae

Bacteria not seen in gram stain

Borrelia burgdorferi

Largest medically significant bacteria

BLT - Borrelia, Lepstospira, Treponema

Spirochetes

Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Peroxidase

Enzymes needed to survive aerobic environment

Tetanospasmin

Protease that cleaves proteins involved in the release of glycine from Renshaw cells in spinal cord

Botulinum toxin

Heat labile neurotoxin that blocks acetylcholine release causing descending pattern flaccid paralysis

Triad of Botulism

Symmetric descending flaccid paralysis with prominent bulbar involvement, absence of fever, intact sensorium

Alpha toxin

Lecithinase that cleaves cell membranes, contributing to gas gangrene

Clostridium difficile

Exotoxin detected by cytopathic effect on cultured cells or ELISA; associated with suppression of normal flora by use of Clindamycin, 2nd and 3rd gen cephalosporin, ampicillin

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Chinese characters; with toxigenicity detected using modified elek test

Babes-Ernst granules/volutin granules

Metachromatic granules in Corynebacterium diphtheriae

ShigA-like, Botulinum, Cholera, Diphtheriae, Erythrogenic toxins

Beta prophage encoded toxins

Staph aureus

Gram +, catalase +, coagulase +

Staph epidermidis

Gram + catalase + coagulase - novobiocin S

Staph saprophyticus

Gram + catalase + coagulase - Novobiocin R

Strep pneumoniae

Gram +, catalase -, green/partial hemolysis, optochin S with capsule and bile soluble

Viridans streptococci

Gram +, catalase -, green/partial hemolysis, optochin R, not bile soluble, no capsule

Strep pyogenes

Gram + catalase - clear hemolysis, bacitracin S

Strep agalactiae

Gram +, catalase -, clear hemolysis, Bacitracin R

Enterococcus

Gram +, catalase -, no hemolysis, aerobe

Peptostreptococcus

Gram +, catalase -, no hemolysis, anaerobe

Clostridium (anaerobic), Corynebacterium, Listeria, Bacillus

Gram positive bacilli

Strep pyogenes: exotoxin B

Facilitates necrotizing fasciitis

Strep pyogenes: erythrogenic toxin

Causes scarlet fever: strawberry tongue, sandpaper like rash, Pastia's lines, desquamation

Strep agalactiae

Most common cause of neonatal pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis; CAMP test +, grown in LIM broth

Strep pneumoniae

MCC CAP, presenting with rust-colored sputum and lobar pattern; gram + diplococci with positive Quellung reaction

Some killers have pretty nice and sexy bodies: Strep pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria meningitidis, Salmonella typhi, Group B strep

Encapsulated bacteria

Strep pneumoniae

MCC otitis media, sinusitis, bacterial meningitis

Strep mutans

MCC of Dental caries

Strep sanguis

MCC of subacute and native valve endocarditis

Strep intermedius

Bacteria in brain abscess

Staph aureus

MCC acute endocarditis

Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome

Most severe form of meningococcemia, with high fever, shock, widespread purpura, DIC, thrombocytopenia and adrenal insufficiency

Neisseria meningitidis

MCC of meningitis among 2-18 year olds

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

MCC of urethritis, PID and septic arthritis in sexually active adults

Fitz Hugh Curtis Syndrome

Complication of PID causing violin string adhesions and perihepatitis

Haemophilis aphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae

Organisms causing subacute infective endocarditis in patients with pre-existing heart disease

Haemophilus influenzae

Satellite phenomenon around S. Aureus colonies; type B polyribitol phosphate = 95% invasiveness of this disease; affects children from 6mos to 1 year and is MCC of epiglottitis

Salmonella, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Listeria, Francisella, Legionella, Yersinia

Facultative Intracellular Bacteria

Bordetella pertussis

With filamentous hemagglutinin, pertussis toxin, false adenylate cyclase and tracheal cytotoxin

Escherichia coli

Green sheen on EMB; with O and H antigens, HST and HLT enterotoxins and HUS-causing verotoxin; MCC of community acquired UTI, 2nd MCC of neonatal meningitis

Salmonella spp

Widal test to detect antibodies in serum

Salmonella typhi

Multiplies in peyer's patches then RES; predilection for gallbladder; presents with stepwise fever, abdominal pain, jaundice and hepatomegaly; incubation of 5-21 days

Shigella sonnei

MCC of bacillary dysentery

Shigella dysenteriae

MCC of epidemic dysentery and most severe form of bacillary dysentery

Campylobacter jejuni

MCC of bacterial gastroenteritis; causes histologic damage to mucosa of jejenum

Reiter's syndrome

Uveitis, urethritis, arthritis; this and Guillain Barre syndrome are associated with C. Jejuni infection

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Currant jelly sputum; with ESBL activity; MCC of pneumonia in alcoholics

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

MCC of otitis externa, malignant otitis externa in diabetics, CSOM; disease spectrum includes ecthyma gangrenosum and febrile neutropenia; with pyocyanin

Bacteroides fragilis

Predominant anaerobe of human colon; with foul-smelling discharge and short chain fatty acids

Nosy and Nagging Pests Must Breathe Lots of MP: Nocardia, Neisseria, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Brucella, B. cereus, Legionella, Leptospira, Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Obligate aerobes

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Most common infectious cauae of SJS

SHiNe My Gong: Strep pneumo, Haemophilus Influenzae, Neisseria Meningitidis, Neisseria Gonorrhea

Bacteria with IgA protease

Staphylococcal enterotoxin

Only exotoxin that is not heat-labile

A, C, Y, W135

Strains of N. Meningitidis in meningococcal vaccine

Lipid A

Toxic component of LPS that activates the complement and the coagulation cascades

Bacillus anthracis

Box-car like gram + rods with edema toxin and lethal toxin

Bacillus cereus

Gran positive rod with heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins causing diarrhea and emesis respectively

Clostridium perfringens

Double hemolysis on blood agar, alpha toxin causes gas gangrene

Clostridium difficile

Infections can precipitate flare-ups of ulcerative colitis

Listeria monocytogenes

Tumbling motility with internalin and actin rockets; associated with ingestion of unpasteurized milk products

Eikenella corrodens

MCC of human bite infection

Legionella pneumophila

Causes atypical pneumonia and pontiac fever through aerosol from water source

Salmonella

Produces H2S, Widal test detects antibodies in serum; infective dose 10^6 organisms

Vibrio spp

Comma-shaped gram neg rods with shooting star motility with enterotoxin that activates Gs

Camylobacter jejuni

Associated with GBS and Reiter's syndrome; produces watery foul-smelling diarrhea followed by bloody stools, fever and severe abdominal pain

Helicobacter pylori

Damages goblet cells if gastric mucosa; detected via EGD and urease breath test

Particular kinds have urease: Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Ureaplasma uralyticum

Urease positive bacteria

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Currant jelly sputum; MCC of pneumonia in alcoholics;

Proteus mirabilis

Urease positive gram neg rod with swarming motility; forms struvite stones

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

With pyocyanin and aninoacetophenone; MCC of otitis externa and CSOM; causes ecthyma gangrenosum and febrile neutropenia

Bacteroides fragilis

Predominant anaerobe of the colon that spreads to blood or peritoneum during bowel trauma perforation or surgery

Brucella abortus

Small gram neg rods without a capsule transmitted via contaminated dairy or direct contact causing undulated fever

Francisella tularensis

From rabbits or deer; causes tularemia

Yersinia pestis

Causes bubonic, pneumonic and septicemic plague through flea bite; gram negative bipolar staining

Pasteurella multicocida

Gram neg rod that exhibits bipolar staining and butterfly colonies with musty odor; from animal bites

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Cord factor is its most important virulence factor; with Ghon's focus, Ranke's complex and Simon's focus

Actinomyces israeli

Hard nontender swelling with sinus tracts draining sulfur granules

Nocardia asteroides

Gram + rod with aerial hyphae and manifests as mycetomas and brain abscesses