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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the effect of pH on enzyme action!

When an enzyme is at the wrong pH it becomes denatured and the shape of the active site changes so that it can no longer bind to the substrate.

What is the effect of temperature on enzymes?

When the temperature increases, the rate of reaction increases, but if the temperature reaches a certain point, the enzyme becomes denatured and the active site changes shape.

What do enzymes do?

They are biological catalysts- they speed up reactions.

What is the lock and key model of enzymes?

The enzyme and substrate collide, the substrate binds onto the active site, to form an enzyme-substrate complex, the substrate splits into products, which leave the active site, and the enzyme is ready to use again.

What enzyme breaks down carbohydrates, where is it found, and what does it turn them into.

Amylase or carbohydrase turns carbohydrates into sugars and is found in the salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine.

What enzyme breaks down Proteins, what does it turn them into and where is it found.

Protease turns proteins into amino acids and is found in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine.

What enzyme breaks down fats, what does it turn them into, and where is it produced?

Lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol and is produced in the pancreas and small intestine.

Why do we have enzymes?

We have enzymes so that we can have a lower body temperature as they reduce the activation energy for reactions to occur.

What is the pH conditions in the stomach?

Very acidic due to glands producing hydrochloric acid. This is good because protease works well in acidic conditions.

What does bile do?

Bile turns the acidic conditions in the small intestine slightly alkaline do that lipase, amylase and some protease can work best. It also emulsifies the fat by breaking it into small droplets to increase the surface area for the enzymes to act on.

How do you test for protein?

Use biuret solution- blue will turn purple if protein is present.

How do you test for Lipids?

Add ethanol to a solution- if a lipid is present a cloudy white layer will form.

How do you test for starch?

Iodine- yellow-red turns blue-black if iodine is present.

How do you test for sugars?

Benedict’s test- blue solution turns brick red if heated when sugar is present.

How do you test for fats?

Use Sudan III- if fat is present, a red stained oil layer will separate out and float on the surface.

What role does the mouth play in digestion?

Uses smell of food to create saliva, chews and breaks down food to start digestion process.

What role do the salivary glands play in digestion?

They produce saliva containing amylase

What role do the pharynx and oesophagus play in digestion?

The pharynx receives food from the mouth and the oesophagus, which is a muscular tube, carries food down to the stomach.

What role does the stomach play in digestion?

It is a sack like organ which creates hydrochloric acid and protease enzymes.

What role does the liver play in digestion?

It secretes bile

What role does the pancreas play in digestion?

Produces protease, lipase and pancreatic amylase

What role does the gall bladder play in digestion?

It stores bile which helps emulsify fats, increasing the surface area for enzymes to digest them.