• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In fish the vertebral column is designed
to resist compresion, it changes muscle contractions into undulations, vertebrae are all similar
In tetrapods the vertebral column is designed to....
support the weight of the body on land, allows some dorsal, ventral bending, articulates with girdles, shows regional specialization
Middle part of the vertebrae that surrounds the notochord if it persists in the adult
Located on the top of the vertebrae, the spinal cord runs through this
Neural arch
Present in some vertebrates, this is located on the bottom of the vertebrae and is where blood vessels reside
Hemal arch
Lateral processes on the vertebrae that articulate with the tuberculum of the rib
Transverse processes
Processes that extend posteriorly and anteriorly to connect two vertebrae together
Pre/post zygopophysis
This species only has a notochord and neural arches
the vertebrae is concave on both sides
The trunk vertebrae have short transversal processes for ribs, and nueral arch. Tail vertebrae lack processes and also posses a hemal arch, have a highly restricted notochord
Vertebrae of sharks
In sharks the ......are plates of cartilage that lie between the neural arches of all vertebrae
intercalary plate
In.....vertebrae intervertebral pads of connective tissue rest between vertebrae, nueral and hemal spines are incredibly long and make up most of the axial skeleton
Fish vertebrae
This first vertebrae became specialized in amphibians to allow the up and down motion of the head
the last trunk vertebrae in Labryinthadonts became this, the place that allows hindlimb attachment
Sacral vertebrae
In ancient amphibians the.....made up the main part of the centrum, in modern vertebrates this space is now a cavity between vertebrae that allow for rib articulation
These vertebrae have a concave surface on the anterior side and a convex surface on the posterior side
procoelous vertebrae
The second cervical vertebrae that allows for the side to side motion of the head
Found in birds, has a saddle-shapped vertebrae
The group with the most flexible neck vertebrae
these vertebrae found in mammals have a flat centrum
acoelous vertebrae
In mammals intervertebral disks are found that have a pulpy center which is what is left of the....
Vertebrae of the neck, has two prominent transverse foramen for lare blood vessels, a large neural arch for spinal cord
Cervical vertebrae, there are seven in all mammals
In mammals, characterized by a long neural spine and large transversal processes for rib attachment
Thoracic vertebrae
In mammals, these vertebrae are typically long and heavy with large transversal processes
Lumbar vertebrae
How many sacral vertebrae do most mammals have
3-5 sacral vertebrae
These vertebrae in mammals are fused and support the inominate bone or pelvic girdle
Sacral vertebrae
How many sacral vertebrae do reptiles and amphibians have
Amphibians have one sacral vertebrae while reptiles have two
These vertebrae make up the tails of mammals, processes are often absent, arches are absent as well
caudal vertebrae
In birds gives great rigidity to the body and provides strong support for legs, this includes the pelvic girdle
This bone gives support for the attachment of the long tail feathers in birds
In mammals this keeps the vertebrae from rubbing together
intervertebral disks
Bony fish have......ribs that provide..........for muscles, these ribs articulate to the vertebral column in ......
ventral ribs
strengthed attachments
one place
ribs also assist in lateral bending of the body
Most tetrapods have........of ribs, known as........ that are homologous to the .........ribs of fish
one set
costal ribs
ventral ribs
Ribs in mammals have two processes....what are they and where do they articulate
The tuberculum articulates with the transversal process of vertebrae, and the capitulum articulates with the intercentrum
Fish have....ribs than mammals
fish have more ribs, they were present on all trunk vertebrae
mammalian ribs
Mammalian ribs articulate with which vertebrae....
Sternal ribs connect to the costal ribs which forms a......
thoracic vertebrae
rib cage
What is the purpose of the rib cage?
protects the heart and lungs
This is a rib in tetrapods that does not connect to the sternum
floating rib
The sternum was not present in ........but it first appeared in ......
first appeared in modern amphibians
This strenghtens the rib cage and braces the pectoral girlds
the sternum
This groups sternum is especially large and broad, flight muscles are attached here
bird sternum,
has a large thin keel for muscle attachment
The sternum of this group is typically long, thin, and segmented
Present in alligators and crocodiles, these rib like strucutes are found embedded in fibrous tissue just behind the sternum, they support the heavy gut