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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is agrophobia?

Fear of being in a place or situation that is inescapable.

What is social phobia?

The fear of social situations, often in relation to embarrassing oneself.

What is school phobia?

Clue is in the name really isn't it. Fear of school.

What is acrophobia?

Fear of heights.

What is arachnophobia?

Fear of arachnids. AKA spiders.

Name at least 3 symptoms of phobias

-Heart pounding


-Feeling sick


-Difficulty concentrating

-Loss of control

What is the main concept of the Behaviourist Theory?

That phobias are learnt rather than natural, this is in relation to classical conditioning.

Explain the process of classical conditioning.

An unconditioned stimulus is met with an unconditioned response. If you then combine the UCS with a neutral stimulus to get the same UCR, that neutral stimulus is now related to the UCR which thus makes it a conditioned response and a conditioned stimulus.

Identify the CR and CS.

Brandi cries every time she sees an egg.

CR: Crying

CS: Egg

What is stimulus generalisation?

Associating the conditioned response with stimuli similar to the original conditioned stimulus.

What is operant conditioning?

Learning by consequence- like in the criminal behaviour thing with vicarious reinforcement etc.

What are the criticisms of the behaviourist theory?

-Individual difference ignored: two people can experience the same thing but only one develop a phobia.

-You can have a phobia without ever encountering the feared object.

-Phobias can be learnt from role models etc.

What does the evolutionary theory believe?

We are born with phobias because they help us survive.

Why do we fear things that are not like us, according to the evolutionary theory?

Because they are less close to us in genes and this more likely to attack us.

Outline Watson and Rayner's 1980 study.

Little Albert!

They conditioned a baby to fear furry, white things.NS: furries, newspaper, mask etc. UCS: Steel bar sound. UCR: Fear. CS: Rat. Stimulus generalisation: furries.

How old was Little Albert at each visit?

Started at 9 months.

11 months when they conditioned him so fear the rat. Repeated 7 times over 2 weeks.

10 days after original conditioning.

Limitations of Watson and Rayner's study?

-Artificial conditions so lacks eco validity

-Sample was WAY too small, just one kid

-Unethical asf. It caused distress and it's debatable whether Albert's mum really knew fully what she was consenting to.

Summarise 'flooding' therapy.

If you immerse (1) someone in their worst situation like putting an arachnophobic person in a room full of spiders (1) the theory is that the body cannot maintain a high level of fear and will eventually subside (1) so the patient forms a new association with spiders (1).

Summarise implosion therapy.

Similar to flooding but avoids the ethical issue of literally putting them in the situation. Participants imagine their worst fears, for example someone with acrophobia imagining being at the top of a high building. They cannot maintain the fear so form new association.

Summarise systematic desensitisation.

‘Systematic desensitisation (1) involves building up an anxiety hierarchy (1) so you can gradually introduce a patient to the object they fear (1). The idea is that they gradually learn to be relaxed in the presence of the object (1)