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55 Cards in this Set

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What are the two parts of a typical vertebra?


Vertebral arch

The typical vertebra has what number of processes? Name them


2 superior articulating processes

2 inferior articulating processes

1 spinous process

2 transverse processes

The articulation between two vertebral bodies is called the __________; is occupied by the __________, and is classified as a __________ joint.

Intervertebral articulation

Intervertebral disc


Articulations formed between adjacent superior and inferior articular processes are termed__________ and are classified as __________ joints.

Zygapophyseal articulations


Adjacent vertebral notches form the __________.

Intervertebral foramina

The vertebral body connects with its vertebral arch by way of the __________; the upper and lower portions of this structure are called the __________.


Vertebral notches

Vertebral lamina unite posteriorly to form the __________.

Spinous process

Thoracic vertebrae are unique in that they provide rib articulation at the vertebra's __________ and __________.


Transverse processes

Name the two parts, outer and inner, of the intervertebral disc.

Annulus fibrosus (outer)

Nucleus pulposus (inner)

What is the medical term for slipped disc?

Herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP)

What is the unique characteristic of cervical spinous processes? Of cervical transverse processes?

Spinous processes are bifid

Transverse processes each have a transverse foramen

Cervical intervertebral foramina are _________ degrees to the MSP and __________ degrees to the transverse plane.


15° to 20°

A vertebral foramen is bounded anteriorly by the __________ and posteriorly by the __________.

Vertebral body

Vertebral arch

What bony structure articulates with the posterior aspect of the anterior arch of C1?

The odontoid process/dens

With what structures do the superior articular facets of the atlas/C1 articulate? What is the name of the articulation?

Occipital condyles

Occipitoatlantal articulation

With what two thoracic vertebra structures do the ribs articulate?


Transverse processes

The thoracic zygapophyseal articulations are __________ degrees to the MSP and __________ degrees to the MCP.

15 to 20

70 to 75

The articulation between C1 and C2 is termed __________ and is classified as a __________ joint.

Atlantoaxial joint


Which cervical vertebra has no body and no spinous process? Which has an extra long spinous process?



Which positions will demonstrate cervical intervertebral foramina closest to the image receptor?


Which position will demonstrate cervical zygapophyseal joints to best advantage?


Inflammation of one or more vertebrae is termed __________.


The AP axial projection of the cervical spine requires tube angulation in what direction and by how many degrees?

15° to 20° cephalad

What should be the relationship between the MSP and the IR in the posterior oblique position of the cervical spine?


Referring to this image, what two positioning changes should be made? Identify the anatomy indicated in this image.

Bring head forward

Rotate to the left

1. Maxillary incisors

2. Lateral mass C1

3. Atlantoaxial articulation

4. Body of C2

5. Base of skull

Forward displacement of one vertebra upon the one beneath it is termed __________.


In what position was this image most likely made? Identify the anatomic parts labeled in this image.

Cross-table lateral

1. Posterior arch of C1

2. Body of C2

3. C3-C4 zygapophyseal joint

4. C4-C5 intervertebral joint

5. Body of C5

Anterior oblique positions of the thoracic vertebra require that the MSP be _________ degrees to the IR and the MCP be __________ degrees to the IR.



RAO and LAO positions of the thoracic spine are performed to demonstrate the zygapophyseal articulations that are __________ to the IR.


Further or closer

Identify the anatomy indicated in this image. How can the interspace between L5-S1 be better visualized?

1. Right 12th rib

2. L1 spinous process

3. L2-L3 intervertebral joint

4. L3 transverse process

5. Psoas muscle

Angle the x-ray tube 30° to 35° cephalad

Which positions will demonstrate lumbar zygapophyseal articulations closest to the image receptor?


Which position will demonstrate lumbar intervertebral foramina?


The portion of each lumbar lamina lying between the superior and inferior articular processes is called the __________.

Pars interarticularis

The correctly positioned oblique lumbar spine shows the Scottie dog appearance. What bony part does each of the following Scottie dog parts represent: leg, ear, eye, nose, neck.

Leg: inferior articular process

Ear: Superior articular process

Eye: pedicle

Nose: transverse process

Neck: pars interarticularis

If the lower lumbar spine is not supported so as to be parallel to the IR in the lateral position, the CR should be angled how much and in which direction?

5° caudad

Why should a scoliosis series be performed in the PA rather than AP projection?

To reduce dose to radiosensitive organs

What positions are generally used to demonstrate spinal fusion?

Flex/ex lateral

How many degrees, and in what direction, is the x-ray tube directed for this image? Identify the anatomy indicated in this image.

30° to 35° cephalad

1. L5 transverse process

2. SI joint

3. L5-S1 articulation

4. Sacral foramina

The LPO and RPO positions of the SI joints visualize which side? How many degrees is the patient rotated?

The elevated side

25° to 30°

Where should the CR be directed for the RPO and LPO positions of the SI joints?

1" medial to the elevated ASIS

Identify the numbered anatomic parts in the image.

1. Sacral promontory

2. Greater sciatic notch

3. Coccyx

What three bones make up the innominate bone of the pelvis?




What bones make up the pelvis?

Left and right innominate bones



The posterior portion of the acetabulum is formed by the __________.


What portion of what bone extends from the anterior-superior iliac spine to the posterior-superior iliac spine?

Iliac crest

The area posterioinferior to the pelvic brim/inlet is called the __________.

Lesser or true pelvis

What bones make up the pelvic girdle?

The two innominate bones

The superior and inferior rami of the ilium and ischium unite to form the __________.

Obturator foramen

The neck of the femur forms a __________ degree angle with its body/shaft. In what direction does the femoral neck also project 15 - 20 degrees?



What is the CR of the bilateral AP oblique (frog leg/modified Cleaves) projection of the pelvis?

1" superior to the pubic symphysis

The RPO position for the acetabulum requires what degree will be obliquity?


To demonstrate the rami of the pubis and ischium in the AP axial projection, the CR should be directed __________ degrees, in what direction?

30° to 45° for females, 20° to 35° for males


When the body is in the seated upright position, the body's weight rests on what pelvic structures?

Ischial tuberosities

How is the femoral neck located in an AP projection of the hip?

2.5" distal and perpendicular to the midpoint of a line between the ASIS and pubic symphysis

In the mediolateral projection of the hip, how much is the femur abducted?

40° to 45°