• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe the features of the distal humerus
• Condyle (articulating surface)
– Capitulum • Articulates with the radius
– Trochlea • Articulates with ulna
• Two epicondyles (ms. attachment) – Medial & Lateral
• Three Fossae – Radial
– Coronoid – Olecranon

What are the differences between the radius and ulna?
• Ulna longer proximally
• Radius longer distally
• Radius rotates around ulna
• Joined by interosseous membrane
• Both articulate with distal humerus
What attaches at the radial tuberosity?
2. What articulates at the ulnar notch?
1. biceps attach
2. site of articulation w/ ulna
Describe the following joints
1) humeroulnar
2) humeroradial
3) proximal radioulnar
4) distal radioulnar
• Humeroulnar *
– Hinge
– Flexion/extension
• Humeroradial *
– Modified Hinge
– Flexion/extension
– Supination/pronation
• Proxmial Radioulnar *
– Pivot

– Supination/pronation
Distal Radioulnar
– Pivot
– Supination/Pronation
What happens to the olecranon process in extension and in flexion?
In extension: olecronon process is in cose approximation to distal humerus in olecranon fossa

In flexion - olecranon process pulls away from distal humerus
When does supination and pronation occur?
• Supination occurs as the radial head spins on the capitulum
• Includes
– Humeroradial joint
– Proximal and distal radioulnar joints
Supporting structures: Elbow region
1) Annular Ligament
2) Lateral Collateral Ligament
3) Medial collateral ligament
1) •Encircles head of radius
•Holds the head of the radius against the ulna
•Protects against distal dislocation of the radius
2) •Protects against varus (medial) deviation of forearm
•Blends with annular ligament of radius
3) •Medial epicondyle of humerus to coronoid process and olecranon process
•Protects against valgus (lateral) deviation of forearm
What are the 2 compartments of the muscles acting on the elbow
anterior compartment: biceps brachii, brachialis (musculocutaneous nerve)
-used in flexion

posterior compartment
-triceps brachii, anconeus, brachioradialis
-radial nerve
Describe the biceps brachii attachments, action, and innervation
Short head
- coracoid process of the scapula
Long head
- supraglenoid tubercle
Both heads: radius via bicipital tendon
Action: flexes elbow (SH flex humerus)
supinates the forearm
Innervation: musculocutaneous n.
What are the names of the biceps brachii based on?
based on the lengths of the tendon, NOT the muscle.
Brachilalis attachments, action, and innervation
Attachments: - distal, anterior humerus
- coronoid process of the ulna + ulnar tuberosity
Action: flexes the elbow Innervation: musculocutaneous n.
Triceps brachii attachments, action, and innervation
Long head
- infraglenoid tubercle
Lateral head
- posterior sup. humerus
Medial head (deep)
- posterior inf. humerus All Heads: olecranon of the ulna
Action: Extend elbow (LH-ext, shoulder)
Long Head
Innervation: radial nerve
Anoconeus attachments, action, and innervation
Attachments: - lateral epicondyle of humerus
- olecranon of the ulna
Action: assists in extending the elbow Innervation: radial nerve
Brachioradialis attachments, action, and innervation
-Lateral supracondylar ridge
- lateral distal radius
Action: Flexes elbow
Innervation:Radial nerve
Muscles acting on radioulnar joints

Supinator (2) attachments, action, and innervation
- lateral epicondyle of humerus, supinator fossa, crest of ulna
- lateral, posterior and anterior surface of radius
Action Supinates forearm
Innervation Deep branch of radial nerve
Biceps Brachii (another supinator)
Short head
- coracoid process of the scapula
Long head
- supraglenoid tubercle
Both heads: radius via bicipital aponeurosis
Action: flexes elbow (SH flex humerus) supinates the forearm
Innervation: musculocutaneous n.
Pronator teres attachments, action, and innervation
- Coronoid process and medial epicondlye
- Lateral surface of radius
Action Pronates and flexes forearm

Innervation: median nerve
Pronator quadratus
Attachments: distal, anterior ulna
-distal anterior radius

action: pronates forearm
Innervation: median nerve
Describe the 2 rows of the carpal bones
Proximal row apprximates with radius
Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform

Distal row approximates with metacarpals
Hammate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium (Med-Lat)

"So Long to Pinky, Here Comes the Thumb"
clockwise from thumb on volar surface
Articulations of Wrist?
1) Radiocarpal: between distal radius and proximal carpals
•condyloid type •wrist flexion/extension •wrist AB/AD

2) Midcarpal
between proximal and distal row of carpal bones
•plane synovial joint •gliding motions between carpals

Distal radioulnar joint: between distal end of radius and ulna
pivot synovial joint supination/pronation
What's Colle's fracture?
70% of these fractures occur in post- menopausal Women
Mechanism of injury is usually a fall on an outstretched arm
Dorsal Displacement of Distal Fragment
What are the stabilizing ligaments?
1. extensor retinaculum
2. flexor retinaculum- transverse carpal ligament
What are the extensor muscles of the wrist?
What are the flexor muscles of the wrist?
Extensors: extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris (radial)

Flexors: flexor carpi radialis (median), flexor carpi ulnaris
ECRL attachments?
ECRB attachments/
ECU attachments/
1) base of 2nd metacarpal
2) base of 3rd metacarpal
3) base of the 5th metacarpal

Also all attached to lateral epicondyle of humerus

Action: wrist extension
Innervation: radial nerve
What is lateral epicondylitis?
Repeated forceful flexion and extension of the wrist may strain the attachment of the common extensor tendon, producing inflammation of the periosteum of the lateral epicondyle (lateral epicondylitis).
Attachments for the flexors, action,a dn innervation
Attachments: medial epicondyle of humerus
FCR/FCU: base of metacarpals
PL: fascia of the palm

Action: wrist flexion
FCR - median
PL - median
FCU - ulnar
What is the palmar fascia?
Palmar fascia is a sheet of fibrous CT in the palm that helps stabilize and protect the structures of the palm.

Palmar fascia - aponeurosis
Dupuytren's contracture?
Dupuytren contracture is a benign, slowly progressive condition causing contracture of the palmar fascia. It has has no clear etiology or pathogenesis.
Describe wrist abduction and adduction.
Wrist ABduction (Radial Deviation) occurs as a result of contraction of both the ECRL and FCR
Wrist ADduction (Ulnar Deviation) occurs as a result of contraction of both the ECU and FCU
Blood Supply

1) where does the axillary artery change names?
1) at the inferior border of teres major, axillary artery changes to brachial artery
-brachial profunda artery is a major branch off the brachial artery
At the level of the elbow, what does the brachial artery divide into?
-radial artery
-ulnar artery: has anterior and posterior interosseous arteries
1) superficial palmar arch
2) deep palmar arch
1) ulnar artery continues into the hand and is the main supply to this
2) radial artery continues into hand and is main supply to this.
1) what drains the superficial and deep venous palmar arches?
2) what happens as this network is prolonged proximally on the lateral side?
3) where does the basiclic vein arise?
1) dorsal venous networks
2) prolonged as cephalic vein
3) basilic vein from medial side of dorsal venous networks
1) axillary vein
2) median cubital vein
he basilic and cephalic veins ultimately drain into the origin and termination of the axillary vein, respectively.
The median cubital vein is the communication between the basilic and the cephalic veins in the cubital fossa.
What forms the triangular interval, and what passes through it?
Borders: long and lateral heads of triceps and teres major.
Radial nerve and profunda brachii pass through it
What is the triangular space bound by? What passes through it?
Teres minor, teres major, and long head of triceps. Circumflex scapular artery passes through it
What is the quandrangular space bordered by? What passes through it?
Boundaries: teres minor, teres major, long head of triceps, and surgical neck of humerus

Axillary nerve and posterior humeral circumflex artery pass through it.