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182 Cards in this Set

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Plaza de Haucapata
Plaza in the middle of the Cuzco where noble temples were built around



What did the Incas do to the Plaza to try and honour Mama Pacha
Covered in with sand



-previously paved


What river runs through Cuzco?
Waytani River
What is Cuzco said to resemble?
A puma
2 main areas of Cuzco:
Hanansaya (upper)

Hurinsaya (lower)

What is a common metaphor for the 2 sayas?
Left hand and right hand, 2 parts to make a whole
What is the saya system called?
The moiety system
Who had buildings along the Plaza de Haucapata?
The royal panacas
Who didn't live in the heart of Cuzco?
Commoners
Cuzco was a ________ center?
Pilgrimage center
Who lives in Cuzco?
The nobility
What do all the servants do after and before work?
Come and leave the city through checkpoints
Cusipata
A big open area, lined with houses of the ethnic lords in each province


What were the houses arranged like?
Arranged around the cusipata in terms of what suyu they were from

-metaphor for the outlay of the empire

Qorikancha
The most elite temple in the empire




What saya is Qorikancha located in?
Hurinsaya
What did the spanish build overtop of Qorikancha?
A cathedral
What was located in the Qorikancha?

-where the gods resided as well as gold, silver, statues and imperial mummies



What else would the Incas place inside the Qorikancha?
Wak'as of the places they conquered, kept them here so they could converse with the Inca gods
Virachoca:
Creator god
Sun and moon god:
Inti and mamakilla
Who was another important deity that warriors and their mothers would pray to?
The weather god, thunder, the inca war god
What was the emperor and empress considered?
The son of the sun and the daughter of the moon
What were offerings to the wak'as like?
Could be chichi, burned garmets, anything considered precious

in serious situations, human life!

What did the Incas do with their dead royalty?
Mummified in a position, with there knees up, new garnets made for them all the time, even served food at festivals
Saywite
West of Cuzco, area that the Incas incorporated into there empire early on under Pacha Kuti, would have had a different ethnic group
What was saywite famous for?
A massive carved stone boulder

-Inca shrine "Stone of Saywite"


-

What is carved on the stone of Saywite?
Lizards, frogs, pumas, moneys, humans, maize stocks and buildings
what is this stone called and what was it used for?
a divination stone, used by priests that would pour chicha down the carved channels
What is behind the stone in Saywite?
a temple with a water shrine, a fountain with 9 layers
What is below the temple in the valley?
Many more carved stones
What was one of the reasons the Incas made these stones?
To take over ethnic groups without a massive effort, locals would make offerings to these stones to
Ushnu
Large platform stage that the nobles would look out on when visiting


What was the point of the ushnu in the Saywite?
Put the Inca stamp on the local area, incorporated the local people into there customs
pottery with the pointed bottom:
Aryballo
What was an aryballo used for?
dispensing chicha
pottery made by specialists in cuzco:
imperial
pottery made by local potters of different provinces:
provincial (imitations)
weaving and pottery were used for:
gifts and sacrifices
festivals:
happen in February and
each village will have one big festival _______
every year
what does a festival require?
a male sponsor
how are these male sponsors chosen?
a community village meeting
how does the seating work at the meeting?
men seated in front, women seated on the ground in the back
who talks during the meeting?
men


who gets the last say in the meeting?
women
why are wira warma important in the decision making?
they no the economic situation and capabilities of everyone in the village?
how does choosing a sponsor work as a levelling mechanism?
makes sure no one in the village gets to rich, if you are getting more wealthy then others you will be chosen
Power objects
enqas
Sonqos power objects:
taytacha-2 crosses

Mamacha-2 little mothers (statues of virgins)

what do the crosses symbolize?
crucifixion of christ
What are some of the things people must do during the festivals?
participate there hardest, drink and dance harder then everyone else
Why do the Runa exert so much energy at the festivals?
The energy they expend will come back to the ayllu. if the taytachas and mamachas are impressed they will give the vitality back to the runa
Mache Fiesta
the town of Maches festival
ome to visit other towns festivals
come to visit other towns festivals
At festival time, people who have left Mache to work or move will:
come back
In Mache one year, the sponsor brought in:
a band from another village
Customary drinking practice:
fill a glass, then pass the bottle, drink the glass, then pass it, the next person fills the glass, passes the bottle, then passes the glass, repeat
Reasons for celebrating in February:
most wet season, potatoes and beans ready to harvest
Chakitaku:
digging stick
Inca times there was a big ceremony for:
ploughing the land
what did the emperor and empress do at the beginning of the festival?
break the first piece of land each year
what did that festival require?
lots of offerings and libations to mama pacha
Storehouse had a guardian of some kind:
bird or animal skull, sometimes skull of an ancestor
Wakaqilla flowers:
"you'll just cry out"

-women told to chew these to open there throats for singing

Qoyllur Rit'i
Snow covered mountain South of Cuzco that had a huge pilgrimage to it every year
What did the festivities at Qoyllur Rit'i include?
dance troupes
Ch'unchu
Specific dance troupe that represented the people of the tropical forest
Ukuku
Specific dance troupe, bear dancers, comical and frightening at the same time
Qolla
Specific dance troupe, represents traders from the southern region of Lake Titicaca
Marco Huamachucho
Northern Sierra Peru

-had buildings 2-3 stories high, large walls surrounding the city

Yawar Mayu:
"blood river"
The Runa know the mountains need to be fed:
liked blood and human corpses had to be sacrificed
What is the tradition that the Incas and Runa do to honour the Mountains with blood?
A Tinku
Tinku:
more of a concept then a word

-2 rivers coming together and one things flows on


-mixing 2 things together to make a brand new thing



What is the Tinku like?
2 opposing sides coming together in a violent release of energy
What could the 2 sides of a tinku be?
1.) hanan vs hurin

2.) 2 ayllus


3.) 2 separate towns

How does a tinku begin?
Head man and his wife toast to the other sides head man and wife and mama pacha
How does the tinku heat up?
start yelling friendly things, slowly start bantering, then escalates to insults, people get angry
what weapon gets brought out?
slings
When did a tinku end before it became illegal?
after someone died
who could be the person that died?
anyone, man, women, child, all that matters is that someone was sacrificed to mama pacha
Paititi
A story of the incas return, a runa went looking for his cattle, stumbled into a ancient Inca who showed him a Inca city of gold
Inka Ri
Last independent king was coaxed out by the spanish and beheaded, the rest of his body is slowly growing back from his head
what is the moral of these 2 stories:
the Incas will rise again, while throw out the spanish and misti kuna and will rule again
Ashlar masonry
stone bricks laid in perfect rows, every stone is a slightly different size, fit perfectly together
How did the Incas shape these stones?
With hammer stones
What is the method that the incas used to shape the stones?
"bounce and twist" method
What is the bounce and twist method?
drop the stone, catch, twist in a rhythmic motion
How long does it take to smooth a surface?
20 mins
how many hammer stone sizes were used?
3 stones, a 4kg, 2 kg, and smaller stone
Cyclopean masonry
bigger stones at the base, smaller at the top fitted tightly together

-resists earthquakes

Stonework analogy:
like the entire empire, all the provinces fit together in one big mosaic, some are big, some are small, every piece is needed
Saqsawaman
On a hill looking down at Cuzco

-unfinished building

Who was ruling when Saqsawaman was being built?
Topa Inca
How many men where working on Saqsawaman and for how long?
30,000 men for 25 year
How did the Incas move these massive stones from the quarries?
Dragged with ropes along well paved roads, slippery when wet
What did the Incas do to put the stones in place?
Put on rollers to get them in position, then hoisted up and held up with logs, then used a scribe
How did a scribe work?
wood and string tied to it with a stone, moved along showing how the stone will sit on the wall, made mirror image of the bottom surface on the top
Ollantaytambo
Has a large inca temple on top of a hill with large stone blocks on top
How did they get the stones on top?
sled and slider ladders method with lever pulls
what is the advantage of the sled and sliders?
can go over the rough terrain
Where is Machu Picchu?
north of the Urubamba river from Cuzco
What was Machu Picchu?
Was a royal estate, owned by Pacha Kuti and his panaca
What was Machu Picchu?
Referred to as the lost city of the Incas
Who was Machu Picchu discovered and publicized as the lost city by?
Hiram Bingham
Who lived at Machu Picchu?
Nobility, no servants
What is at the entrance of Machu Picchu
The "Sun Gate"

-Intipunku, where guards would be checking who goes in and out

What is happening to Machu Picchu today?
seen as a powerful spot in the world, many tourists visit everyday, all year
Why are there protests to increase the amount of people in there despite the fact its detrimental to the site?
$100 a head to get in, important to Peruvian economy
who is ruling the empire at its height in 1515AD?
Huayna Capac
During his reign, where did Huayna Capac go to settle a uprise?
North to settle a group of savages who rose up and slaughtered there Inca Governors
Huayna Capacs panaca:
Tumipampa
Hauyna Capacs wife and son:
Kusi Rimaq

Ninan

First Consort and son:
Rahua Oqllo

Waskhar

Who does Huayna Capac take north with him and who did he leave behind?
The empress and her sons, and Rahua Oqllo but not Waskhar (to young)
Rumichaca:
stone bridge Huayna Capac constructed in the north over a very deep ravine
Cuenca (Tumipampa)
City where Huayna Capac was born

"City of Eternal Spring"



What did Hauyna Capac build in Tumipampa and why declare the city was going to be?
His palace, Pumapungo and declared the city was going to be another Inca capital
Rio Tomebamba
River that runs through Cuenca
How long did the campaign take and why?
several years, possibly because Huayna Capac didn't want to return to Cuzco, liked the climate up North better
What was going on back in Cuzco while Capac was up north?
There was a plot to depose him, but it was discovered and the leaders were beheaded
Hatun kanar (Ingapirca)
Capital of the Kanari people


What were the Kanari people regarded as?
The most civilized of the northern people
Who did the Kanari develop a close relationship with?
Topa Incas lineage after they were conquered by him
What kind of masonry was seen in Hutan Kanar that is not seen very much?
Rounded walls
Rumicucho
Fortress up in the highlands that guarded their borders up in Ecuador

-Low walls, quite simple

What was important for the fortress?
The position, up on a hill top, has a commanding view of the entire region around it
Who are the 3 tribe groups that have an alliance and fight against the Incas in the north?
1.) Pasto

2.) Cayambi


3.) Caranqui

What was one of the possible reasons it took Huayna Capac so long to defeat these tribe groups?
The landscape was all forest, and the natives fighting style was scattered, couldn't have one big battle
What happened to Huayna Capac that caused him to be angry with his generals?
Almost died in a battle, was surrounded by the enemy and his generals weren't there to protect him
What did Huayna Capac do to the generals to punish them?
Cut there rations and then didn't invite them to the victory party
Offended, what did the generals threaten to do?
Leave and take a large chunk of the army with them
What did Huayna Capac do to make them stay?
Had a women dress up as the goddess of the moon and tell them if they stayed huayna capac had many gifts for them
Where did the Incas chase the natives after they trapped them outside there fortress?
Lake Yahuarcocha

"Lake of Blood"

Where did Huayna Capac spend a lot of time after the rebellion is over and done with?
Tumipampa and Quito
When did disease start spreading around the empire?
1528 AD
How many people would have died due to this disease?
At least 200,000
How did Huayna Capac die?
The disease killed him
What did Huayna Capac say when asked who would be the next emperor after he died?
Nominate my son Ninan, but if he can't take over, I nominate my son Waskhar if the omens are good
Why could Ninan not rule?
He died from the disease as well
Despite bad omens, What does Waskhar do?
Declares himself emperor
what did Waskhar do to anyone who opposed him?
Executed and had there estates taken
What saya did Waskhar change himself to?
Was born into Hanansaya, but changed into Hurinsaya
Why did Waskhar switch sayas?
A political move, trying to get all of Hurinsaya on his side

-already had the support of tumipampa panaca of hanansaya

Who was Ata Walpa?
One of Huayna Capacs sons, who ruled Quito after his father died
What was Waskhar ordering all the generals to do?
Come back to Cuzco, where he was executed them all, getting ride of anyone that could get in his way
Who refused to return to Cuzco under Waskhars orders?
Ata Walpa, knew what was going on
After Ata Walpa continued to come to Cuzco for a few years, what did Waskhar do?
Sent an army north to Quito to arrest Ata Walpa
Where do Ata Walpa and Waskhar's race to to try and control an important pass?
Town of Mocha, on the south border of Quito
Who did Waskhars army have the support of in the north?
The Kanari people
How many men does Ata Walpa have march north
13,000 men
Las Campinas de Mocha
"an open flat area" where the first battle took place
What was the outcome of this battle?
13,000 men vs. 40,000 men

-Quitans defeated for they had to climb up a slope to get to the flatland, where outnumbered and couldn't see how many other men were there

What was the significance of this battle
first time there was Inca vs. Inca fighting

-Civil war, very detrimental to the empires image

What happened after this battle?
The battles continued, Ata Walpas men knew they either had to take Cuzco or die
who were the 2 generals that led Ata Walpas men?
1.) Quiz Quiz

2.) Chalcochima

What does Ata Walpa do during these battles?
Remains in Quito, if he were to die the whole mission was over, now making a case that he should be emperor
Who was it that had actual claim to the throne?
Waskhar-> more noble, mother was Huayna Capacs sister
Yanamarca
Plain were a large battle took place
How many men were on each side?
130,000
How did Chalcochimas men victorious?
Took 5,000 men and runs around the hills, comes down along the sides and breaks into waskhars army from the side and rear, broke the ranks
What happened at Vicashuaman?
Waskhars army came upon a convoy of Ata Walpas mens wives, children and servants, slaughtered them all
Why was Ata Walpas army running out of time?
Men were out of food and weapons, outnumbered
How did Chalcochima and his men capture Waskhar?
Dressed up as Waskhars soldiers, marched up to Waskhars convoy and slaughtered his guards and took him captive
What did Chalcochima do to the Waskhar supporters?
Slaughtered some in the streets of Cuzco, others where taken up to Saqsawaman and lined up and slaughtered
After the war is done, what does Ata Walpa do?
Makes his way down to Cuzco
How far does Ata Walpa get and why?
Calamarca, where he meets Pizzaro

How many people lived in the empire

12 million

Which Inca ruler was captured by Pizzaro at Cajamarca , and forced to pay a huge ransom?

Ata Walpa

In what year did the great Inca rebellion take place?

1536

When did the Spanish civil war take place (what years)?

1537-1538

According to the early Spanish chroniclers, what factors allowed handful of conquistadors conquer the vast Inca Empire?

a.) their own bravery


b.) divine intervention

According to modern popular account, why did the Inca empire collapse so quickly after the Spanish arrived?

a.) Superior European technology


b.) Biological-disease resistance

What are the traditional beginning and end dates for the Inca empire?

1438-1536

What did a new emperor inherit and not inherit under the law of split inheritance, and what does this law require them to do?

Inherits: power and status


doesn't inherit: wealth


-have to find own wealth and form own Panaca

According to Inca tradition, which royal person was selected to replace the previous emperor? (what were his qualifications?)

-No fixed rule of succession


-In theory, the most capable prince was chosen

Subject peoples in the provinces were loyal to the Inca state because they valued their citizenship in the empire. True or False?

False, No concept of citizenship. Often retained own language and culture under Inca rule

When did Huayna Capac die?

January 1528

When was the Inca civil war fought?

May 1531-May 1532

What were the fundamental factors that contributed to the collapse of the Inca empire?


5.)

a.) Law of split inheritance-Limited growth


b.) No firm succession rule-led to conflict


c.) Centralized authority in one individual


d.) Civil war


e.) Lack of national identity

Attributing the collapse of the Inca Empire is primarily to European invaders with superior technology, cavalry, and tougher immune systems is an example of:

culture bound ethnocentrism


-looking at something from only the perspective of your culture and interpreting it only based on that.