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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
poor preservation
we can never arrive at the "true" facts for past enviros due to _____ _____________ of many forms of evidence
sea cores
climatic info through analysis of organic molecules; fatty lipids adjust according to temp changes ... when it is cold, lipids increase
provide data on precipitation
_____ can have a great impact on human activity
_______ in hurricanes -> more oxy-16 -> leaves treaces in layers of stalagmites (caves) and tree rings
land bridges
many caused by falls in sea level i.e. Bering Strait; effects on flora and fauna
isostatic uplift
occurs when the weight of ice is removed as temps rise, as at the end of an ice age
topography of submerged coastal plains *analogous to devices used to find sites
location of _______ can be a good indicator of earlier coastlines
beaches may occur in ____________ stratigraphy
______ indicates position of previous shorelines and its organisms give info on local marine environment
____ isotopes give info on glacial expansion and contraction
rock art
i.e. sea rises -> change in food available -> change in technology -> change in art
area of study that uses the methods and concepts of earth sciences to examine processes of earth formation, and soil/sediment patterns
glaciated landscapes
U-shaped valleys, polished/striated rocks, moraine deposits
Scandinavia; deep lakes - annual layers of sediment after spring thaw; often contain pollen that complement climatic info
conserves wide variety of evidence about human activities and climate/environment
study of the form and development of the landscape
soil micromorphology
use of microscopic techniques to study the nature and organization of the components of soils
primary cultural deposits
gather on surface from human activity
secondary cultural deposits
primary deposits that have been modified by physical displacement or because of a change of use of the activity area
tertiary cultural deposit
a primary deposit that is completely removed from the original context
what soil micromorphology can do
can... 1. help with enviro reconstr. of ancient human landscapes 2. contextual archae -> more comprehensive view
Loess sediment
only deposited during periods of relatively cold, dry climate; Neolithic soils formed in loess - > rich in minerals, fertile
organic remains
________ ________ above all provide the richest source of evidence for environmental reconstruction
pollen analysis
provides info on chronology and on environment of microbotanical remains
diatom analysis
can indicate fresh/brackish/saltwater; can indicate period when lakes became isolated from the sea in areas of tectonic uplift, positions of past shorelines
rock varnishes
natural accretions of manganese and iron oxides, together w/ clay minerals and organic matter
screening (sieving); flotation techniques
retrieval of macrobotanical vegetation has been made easier by the development of ___________ and _________ techniques able to separate minerals grains from organic materials because of their different sizes and densities
analysis of ___________ can reveal local environment and human adaptation to it; waterlogged and dessicated wood
tend to be better indicators of climate and environmental change bc they are more sensitive to small variations in climate and adapt to the mrelatively quickly i.e. insectivores, rodents, bats, birds ,fish
ideal is animal remains not killed by humans or carnivores i.e. killed in a flood
______ usually preserve when buried quickly (avoids weathering) and non-acidic waterlogged sites
debates about big-game extinctions
1. Martin - arrival of people who over-exploited their prey 2. Lundelius - climatic change 3. compromise theory
compromise theory
removal of megaherbivores must have radically affected Pleistocene environment
pollen analysis
highly important method for demonstrating deliberate woodland clearance; trace the process of forest clearance and cultivation in the area
most devastating human impact can be seen on _________ where settlers introduced new animals and plants
degree to which the Earth's orbit around the Sun is elliptical or circular
Milankovitch cycles
predictions of eccentricity, tilt, precession
Franchthi Cave
during the early Holocene the bay was entirely dry land; bay gradually became submerged, changing local environment; Mediterranean floodplains -> enviro change -> coastlines -> changes available resources
technical term for pollen analysis
pollen gets well preserved in __________
pollen sequence
represents change over time in different kinds of plants in a region
______ weren't built during Pleistocene
we both influence and are influenced by the ______________
Polynesian; massive ship that could hold up to 200 people; only way in or out *design specifically for island settlement/island hopping
Easter/Viking collapses
opposite explanations but similar forms of evidence. 1) arch evidence of collapse of local culture 2) paleo-enviro data (i.e. palynology and ice cores) show enviro change 3) in one case, humans are argued to be agents, in other climate change. which is correct...(both?)
Pleistocene-Holocene transition
most extinctions occurred in the ___________-________ ______________
___________ invented the wheel; Southern Mesopotamia around 2600 BC
flint/chert, obsidian, jasper
examples of stone
qualities of stone
homogeneity, elasticity, isotropic, highly siliceous
usually found in exposed formations near old volcanoes
Francois Bordes
master of lithic reproduction of stone tools
hammer stones
used in "hard percussion" as big flakes are removed from the core, or as outside "rind" is removed in preparation of a core
billets or batons
shaped pieces of antler, bone, or hardwoods that are used in "soft percussion" or removal of smaller, thin flakes from a prepared core
pressure flaking
a technique using pressure applied on a small point to remove a tiny bit of stone used to finish the most sophisticated tools
direct evidence of various kinds as to what people were eating at a particular time
pattern of consumption over a long period of time
study of past human use of animals
study of past human use of plants
plant remains
can survive by being partly or wholly replaced by minerals percolating thru sediment, a process that tends to occur in places like latrine pits with high concentrations of salts
archaeological ________ of a plant sample is crucial in analysis
specific to certain parts of a plant and thus their presence may provide clues to the particular harvesting and threshing technique used
down-the-line trade
a type of distribution pattern/reciprocity where trade item is traded from village to village, going farther away from the source of the item and the quantity of the trade item is decreasing
old copper culture
type of archeometallurgy. Term coined by W.C. McKern in 1942. Occurred in Late Archaic Period from 3000 to 1000 BC. Found tools and weapons of local native copper deposits. This is the earliest metallurgy in the Americas. there are over 100 sites centered in Wisconsin and upper peninsular Michigan.
what you add to clay to make pottery. it’s usually sand or some kind of silty, crushed up substance.
last glacial maximum
refers to the time of maximum extent of ice sheets during the last glacial period. happened around 20,000 BP in the Northern Hemisphere. Sea level was really low.
origins of agriculture
in Levant area. This term refers to food production. Does not equal cultural progress. Arose possibly because of environmental change, population pressure, coevolution, sedentism, sociopolitical competition, and risk management.
oasis hypothesis
aka dessication hypothesis. An explanation for the rise of agriculture that says it’s due to the Holocene Environmental Change: that an increase in temperature yields increased aridity which yields increase in the proximity of people, plants, and animals around limited sources of water (oasis) which leads to domestication of plants/animals. This is now refuted by global warming evidence: that when temperature rises, sea level and flooding increases. hence, more water.
hilly flanks hypothesis
Theory says that agriculture developed from domestication of plants and animals within their natural range (like cereal grains) as people “settle in.” This doesn’t explain why or exactly when argiculture arose.
marginal zone hypothesis
Theory says that agriculture arose because human populations surpassed the carrying capacity of landscapes, forcing them to move into marginal zones to avoid conflict.When they moved, people took with them seeds, which led to domestication.
coevolutionary model
says that there are mutual evolutionary effects of interacting species on each other. symbiosis of humans, plants, and animals.
feasting model
says that there is sociopolitical competition via ostentatious displays of power, such as holding feasts to exert dominance. Feasting requires large amounts of food; so in order to do this, you need a surplus, which means you have to domesticate stuff, have agricultural technology, and use storage. Developed by Bryan Hayden.
emmer, einkom, barley, lentil, pea, chickpea, bitter vetch, flax
Neolithic "founder crops"
Neutron Activation Analysis
Looks at trace elements, neutrons, radioisotope decay, gamma ray emmision, neutron energy spectrum, and radioactive species.
can prove/suggest that plants were processed at a site; *but alone are poor indicators of such features, and require supporting evidence such as remains of domesticated plants
isotopic analysis
organic residues with particular reference to nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios i.e. beans, legumes
Bernardino de Sahagun
Franciscan 16th c. scholar who documented Aztec food crops, fishing practices, etc