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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is abundance?
The number of species in a given space
What are the two sampling methods?
Systematic (line transect) and random (frame/point quadrat)
What are the three factors to consider when using quadrats? (Think)
Size of quadrat to use

The number of sample quadrats to record within the study area

The position of each quadrat within the study area
What factors affect the size of the quadrat?
The size of the plan being counted and the distribution

Large species --> Large quadrat

Uneven distribution --> Large number of small quadrats
What factors affect the number of samples taken?
The number of different species in an area (more samples = more reliable results)
How do you carry out random sampling?
Two long tape measures at right angles along two sides of the study area

Obtain coords using a random number generator

Place the quadrat at the intersection of each pair of coordinates and record the species
When is systematic sampling used?
When there is a transition in communities of plants, e.g. tidal sea shore
ZONATION is present
Use a line transect
What are the two ways to measure abundance?
Frequency and percentage cover
What is frequency?
The likelihood of a particular species occurring in a quadrat
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using frequency to measure abundance?
Ad: Useful if species is hard to count (grass)

Dis: No information on density and detailed distribution
What is percentage cover?
An estimate of the area within a quadrat that a species covers
What are the advantages and disadvantages of percentage cover?
Ad: Useful if species is abundant/difficult to count
Individual plants do not need to be counted

Dis: Less useful when plants overlap
What are the assumptions of Mark-Release-Recapture?
Proportions of marked to unmarked in second sample is the same proportion to whole population

The marked individuals distribute themselves evenly and have sufficient time to do so

No immigration or emigration out of the defined boundary

Few deaths/births

Marking method is non-toxic nor makes the animals more conspicuous and more likely to be preyed on

Mark/label does not rub off
How should one go about collecting data in an ecological investigation?
Study organisms in situ - minimum disruption if necessary

Return all organisms - even dead ones

Allow time before future studies

Avoid damage
When carrying out fieldwork, the important thing is that there is a BALANCE between the DAMAGE done and the VALUE of the information gained