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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 6 organs of the Immune system?
Bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, Peyer's Patches
What does the internal environment of animals provide?
Conditions for growth of bacteria, viruses, and other organisms
The first line of defense is made of these
Skin and mucous membranes, defensive cells and chemicals
What do the defensive cells and chemicals do in the first line of defense?
They protect against invaders through skin or openings in the body
Physical barrier in the first line of defense
What covers the skin in the first line of defense?
Oily and acidic secretions from sweat glands
Breaks down the cell walls of bacteria
Where is lysozyme contained?
Saliva, tears, sweat, and other secretions on mucous membranes
Lines the nostrils,trachea, and lungs
Describe the path of microbes throughout the first line of defense
Cilia filters them, mucus traps then, they get sweped out of the lungs, gastric juices kills most of them
Kills most microbes
Gastric juices
Where is symbiotic bacteria found?
Digestive tract and vagina
What do symbiotic bacteria do?
They out-compete many other organisms that could cause damage
Four main things involved in the second line of defense
Phagocytes, interferons, complement, inflammatory response
Is the first line of defense specific?
It is non-specific
Is the second line of defense specific?
It is non-specific
White blood cells that will engulf and destroy invaders
Three types of phagocytes
macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells
Develop from monocytes that wander in interstitial fluid to "eat" bacteria and viruses
Released from bone marrow; release a chemical "bleach" into infected tissue
Destroys abnormal body cells (tumors) or the body's own pathogen infected cells by lysis
Natural killer cells
Produced by virus infected cells to help other cells resist the virus
Are interferons virus specific?
No but they are host specific
How may interferons act against cancer?
By stimulating immune response
What do interferons stimulate the production of?
Antiviral proteins
Group of 20 proteins that interact with other branches of the defense network
Complements may stimulate release of _____
Complements may coat invaders to facilitate _____
Complements may cause cells to _____
Nonspecific events; occur in response to pathogens
Inflammatory response
Inflammatory response occur in response to _____
What triggers inflammatory response
Damage to cells or entrance of pathogen
White blood cells in connective tissue
Basophils secrete _____
_____ arrive at scene
Histamines cause _____ to increase blood flow to the damages area
Dilation of blood vessels
Vasodilation does what to capillaries?
Makes them more porous to release more fluid containing WBC's to collect at site of inflammation
What does increased blood flow cause?
Redness and swelling
_____ cause increase in temperature which makes area inhospitable to pathogens
What do pyrogens do that destroys pathogens?
They increase the temperature
What attracts phagocytes to the site?
Chemical gradients of complement
Engulf pathogens and damaged cells
Dead cells, WBCs, and fluid from capillaries
Which line of defense takes the longest?
Third line
Molecule identified as foreign
The third line of defense causes cells to either attack specific invaders or produce _____
MHC stands for
Major Histocompatibility Complex
Collection of glycoproteins on cell membranes of all cells that are unique to each individual
Where do lymphocytes originate?
Bone marrow
Where are lymphocytes located?
Lymphatic tissue (Lymph nodes, thymus gland, and spleen)
These are mature lymphocytes that identify and respond to specific antigens
Once activated by antigens, lymphocytes multiply and develop into _____ cells
What do effector cells do?
Respond to antigens but live only a few days
What are the two types of immune responses?
Cell mediated and humoral
T cells
Cell mediated
B cells
What are the types of lymphocytes?
B cells and T cells
Secrete antibodies
B cells
Where do B cells originate and mature?
Bone marrow
B cells are involved in _____ immune response
B cells have specialized _____ ______, called antibodies
Antigen receptors
What do antigens do when they encounter B cells?
They bind to them and they produce two kinds of daughter B cells
Two kinds of daughter B cells
Plasma cells and memory cells
Proteins which are specific to particular antigens
What are the 5 classes of antibodies or immunoglobulins?
IgM, IgA, IgD, IgG, IgE
Or just MADGE
What do each class of antibodies do?
They recognize a particular antigen and aid elimination
Gives antibodies specificity to their antigen
Variable region
Shape of the variable region of antibodies
Y shaped with 2 arms
How do antibodies inactivate antigens?
Binding to them (agglutination) then phagocytosis occurs and then lysis of pathogens
B cells that release their specific antibodies that locate and bind to antigens
Plasma/effector cells
B cells that also produce antibodies but do not release their antibodies during initial invasion
Memory cells
They are long-lived and they provide future immunity
Memory cells
The action of memory cells in the basis of _____
T cells are involved in _____ - _____ response
Cell mediated
Where do T cells originate and mature?
Originate in the bone marrow, mature in the thymus gland
Receptor sites for non-self cells
Plasma membrane receptors
Three types of T cells
Cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, suppressor T cells
Cytotoxic T cells are also known as
Killer T cells
When T cells encounter non-self (Pathogens, etc), they divide and produce _____ T cells and _____ T cells
Killer, Helper
Binds directly to antigen bearing cell or non-self cells causing them to lyse
Kilerl T cells
Secretes chemicals to activate production of macrophages, then bind to those cells after they engulf pathogens
Helper T cells
Stimulate production of B cells and Killer T cells
What produces interleukins?
Helper T cells
Inhibit activity of macrophages, lymphocytes and mast cells when Killer T cells are done with their job
Suppressor T cells
Malfunctions and failures of the immune system
Autoimmune diseases, allergies, aids
Examples of autoimmune diseases
Lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes
Passive immunity is _____
How is passive immunity obtained (Not vaccination)?
By transferring antibodies from another person (Ex: Mother to infant through placenta)
Passive immunity is also obtained by ?
Injecting antibodies from an individual who had the disease previously
Longer lasting immunity
Active immunity
Body is stimulated to produce antibodies and memory cells will be present when exposed again
Active immunity
When does primary immune response occur?
When a first exposure to antigen stimulates production of memory cells and effector (plasma) cells
How long does it take effector cells to be produced during primary immune response?
Lag time of several days
Occurs when 2nd exposure to the same antigen reactivates memory cells
Secondary immune response
Secondary immune response rapidly produces more _____ cells and large number of effector cells
Secondary immune response is _____ and more prolonged than primary immune response
Memory cells may live for _____; effector cells live for _____
Decades; days
Example of how secondary immune response may provide lifetime immunity
What affects the number of white blood cells?
Hormones secreted by adrenal glands during stress