• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why does active transport of mineral ions require specific carrier proteins embedded in the cell membrane?
Because soil is too dilute to create gradient
What fuels the active transport of minerals ions?
Cellular respiration
What transports the ions across the plasma membrane?
Proton pump
What happens when ions are transported across the plasma membrane?
H+ ions pumped out of cell and create pH gradient and voltage across the membrane to drive transport
Two ways that water moves to stele (center) of the root
Symplast and Apoplast
"Living" part of cells
"Nonliving" part of cells; extracellular pathway
Water moves from cell cytoplasm to cell cytoplasm through the plasmodesmata; goes all the way to the stele
Water moves through cell walls without ever entering the cells in this method of water moving to the stele of the root
What blocks the apoplast pathway?
The casparian strip
Waxy layer of suberin around each cell of endodermis that is impervious to water and dissolved minerals
Casparian stripe
What do endodermal cells allow to enter the stele
Water but they are selective about minerals entering (K+ can pass, but Na+ is blocked)
What selectively pump ions out of the apoplast into the symplast so they may enter the xylem which requires energy
Transfer cells
The ascent of xylem sap depends on what?
Transpiration and properties of water (cohesion/adhesion/H bonds)
The evaporation of water from the aerial parts of a plant. Creates negative pressure
Xylem sap rises against gravity, driven by a gradient of _____ _____
Water potential
Water flows from an area of _____ water potential to an area of _____ water potential
High; Low
Osmotic pressure; occurs when transpiration is low, root cells pump ions into the stele
Root pressure
Root pressure causes water uptake by the stele which forces _____ (up the) _____
Fluid up the xylem
Formation of sap on the margins of leaves of grasses and small herbs caused by root pressure
When does guttation occur?
During the night when transpiration is low and more water enters leaves than is transpired
Explains most water movement through xylem movement
Cohesion-tension theory
Evaporation from leaves due to stomata opening to obtain CO2, causes negative pressure (tension) to occur within the leaves and tissue
Transpiration causes _____ _____ to occur within the leaves and tissue
Negative pressure
Tree trunk diameter can decrease on a very hot day due to _____ _____
Negative pressure
Produces a single column of water from roots to leaves within xylem tissues
The rise of liquids in narrow tubes; results from forces of adhesion between hydrogen bonds of water and hydrophobic walls of xylem
Capillary action
Occurs as water molecules evaporate from the leaf surface by transpiration
Bulk flow
Driving force for ascent of sap through plants
Gradient of water potential caused by the sun
Four factors affective transpiration
Temperature, humidity, air currents, and opening and closing of stomates
Three things about transpiration
supplies water to leaves assists in the transfer of minerals and results in evaporative cooling
Stomates open when _____ and close when _____
Turgid; flaccid
Each stoma is surrounded by _____ _____ _____
Two guard cells
_____ _____ expand and buckle as water diffuses in and make an opening
Guard cells
_____ guard cells produce kidney-shaped guard cells that create an opening (stoma) between them
_____ guard cells produce dumb-bell shaped guard cells to create opening
Factors affect movement of stomata (5)
Water availability to leaf, CO2 concentration, temperature, light, K+ ion concentration