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48 Cards in this Set

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Axial Skeleton
Structured from 80 bones segregated into three major regions:
Skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage

Components: skull (cranium and face), the hyoid bone, the vertebrae, the sternum, and the ribs.
Sutures of the Human Skull
1.) Coronal- between frontal and parietal bones.

2.) Lambdoidal- Between occipital and parietal bones.

3.) Sagittal- Between the parietal bones.

4.) Squamosal- Between parietal and temporal bones.
Cranial Bones
Frontal (1); Parietal (2); Occipital (1); Temporal (2); Sphenoid (1); Ethmoid (1)
Frontal bone
Forms the anterior cranium (forehead). It articulates posteriorly with the paired parietal bones via the prominent coronal suture.

Features: Contains the sinuses: Frontal sinus (single fused bone)
Parietal bone
Two large curved, rectangular bones that form most of the superior and lateral aspects of the skull;
the four largest sutures occur where the parietal bones articulate (form a joint) with other cranial bones.
Occipital bone
Forms posterior aspect and most of the base of the skull;

Features:
1.) Foramen magnum: allows passage of the spinal cord from the brain stem to the vertebral canal.

2.) Occipital condyles: Articulate to the first vertebrae (C1).
Temporal bone part (1)
Best viewed on the lateral skull surface;

Features:
1.) External auditory meatus: External ear canal, through which sound enters.

2.) Mastoid process: Anchoring site for some neck muscles, felt as a lump just posterior to the ear.
Temporal bone part (2)
3.) Mandibular fossa of the temporal lobe: small, oval on the inferior surface of the zygomatic process and receives the condyle of the mandible (lower jawbone), forming the freely movable (temporomandibular joint).

4.) Styloid process: A needle-like attachment point for several tongue and neck muscles located below the external acoustic meatus, which secures the hyoid bone.

5.) Zygomatic process (cheekbone): A bar-like structure that meets the zygomatic bone of the face anteriorly.
Sphenoid bone part (1)
Spans the width of the middle cranial fossa; it forms a central wedge that articulates with all other cranial bones.

Features:
1.) Greater wings: Project laterally from the sphenoid body, seen as flag shape, bony areas medial to the zygomatic arch.

2.) Lesser wings: Horn-like part of the floor of the anterior cranial fossa and part of the medial walls of the orbits.
Sphenoid bone part (2)
3.) Sella turcica: A saddle-shaped prominence on the superior surface of the sphenoid body

4.) Sphenoid sinuses: Paired sinues located withing the body of the sphenoid (unable to locate from outside)
Ethmoid bone part (1)
Lies between the sphenoid and the nasal bones of the face, it is the most deeply situated bone of the skull. It forms most of the bony area between the nasal cavity and the orbits.

Features:
1.) Cribriform plate: A pair of horizontal plates which help form the roof of the nasal cavities and the floor of the anterior cranial fossa.
Ethmoid bone part (2)
2.) Perpendicular plate (midsagittal plate seen thru nose): Projects inferiorly in the median plane and forms the superior part of the nasal septum, which divides the nasal cavity into right and left halves.

3.) Ethmoid sinuses: Also called the ethmoidal air cells, for which the bone itself is named.
Ethmoid bone part (3)
4.) Superior and middle conchae: Delicately coiled structure, named after the conch shells found on warm ocean beaches, protrude into the nasal cavity.

5.) Cristae galli: Projects superiorly between the cribriform plates and is triangular in shape; the outermost covering of the brain attaches to the cristae galli and helps secure the brain in the cranial cavity.
Facial bones
1.) Nasal
2.) Vomer
3.) Maxilla
4.) Zygomatic
5.) Lacrimal
6.) Inferior nasal concha
7.) Palatine
8.) Mandible
Nasal bone
Forms the bridge of the nose.
Vomer
Inferior part of the nasal septum.
Maxillary bone
Keystone bones of the face; form the upper jaw and parts of the hard palate, orbits, and nasal cavity walls.

Features:
1.) Alveolar process: Socket for teeth.

2.) Palatine process: forms the anterior hard palate; meet medially in intermaxillary suture.

3.) Maxillary sinus: Largest of the paranasal sinuses. They extend from the orbits to the upper teeth.
Zygomatic bone
Irregularly shaped bones, commonly called cheekbones.
Lacrimal bone
Delicate fingernail-shaped bones that contribute to the medial walls of each orbit
Inferior nasal concha
Form part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity
Palatine
Form posterior part of the hard palate and a small part of nasal cavity and orbit walls.
Mandible part (1)
The lower jaw

Features:
1.) Alveolar process (ridge): Sockets for the teeth (bottom)

2.) Mental foramen: Openings on the later aspects of the mandibular body, allow blood vessels and nerves to pass to the skin.
Mandible part (2):
1.) Mandibular body: Anchors the lower teeth.
2.) Mandibular ramus: Located distal to the mandibular notch.
3.) Mandibular angle: Where each ramus meets the body posteriorly.
4.) Mandibular condyle: Located posterior and articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal lobe, forming the temporomandibular joint.
What is the fontanel?
Fibrous membranes at the angles of cranial bones that accommodate brain growth in the fetus and infant.
Hyoid Bone
A small bone found in the region of the neck. This bone does not articulate (join) with any other bone. Some of the muscles of the tongue attach here.
Vertebral Column
Composed of 26 bones, these bones are stacked on top of one another forming a flexible tunnel that houses the spinal cord.
What structure forms a pad between two vertebrae?
Intervertebral disc.
Compare the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae...
The first two vertebrae (C1, and C2), the atlas and axis are modified.

The last vertebrae are fused together
in the sacrum and the coccyx.
Kyphosis
(hunchback) is a dorsally exaggerated thoracic curvature.

Occurs at the thoracic curve and the sacral curve
Lordosis
(swayback) is an accentuated lumbar curvature.

Occurs at the cervical curve and the lumbar curve
Vertabrae C1-C7
C-1: Atlas
C-2: Axis

Features:
1.) body,
2.) lamina
3.) pedicle
4.) spinous process
5.) transverse process
6.) traverse foramen
7.) vertebral foramen
8.) dens (C2 Only)
Cervical Vertebrae
Are the smallest and lightest.

1.) The body is oval - wider from side to side in the anteroposterior dimension.

2.) Except in C2 the spinous process is short,

3.) The vertebral foramen is large and generally triangular.

4.) Each transverse process contains a transverse foramen, which the vertebral arteries pass.
Cervical Vertebrae Features:
1.) Body: Small, wide side to side
2.) Spinous process: Short; fifid; projects directly posteriorly
3.) Vertebral foramen: Triangular
4.) Transverse processes: Contain foramina
5.) Superior and inferior articulating processes:
Superior facets directed superoposteriorly.
Inferior facets directed inferoanteriorly.
Thoracic Vertebrae T1-T12
Features:
1.) Body 2.) vertebral arch 3.) lamina
4.) pedicle 5.) spinous process
6.) vertebral formen
7.) transverse process with facet for rib's articulation.
8.) superior and inferior articular processes (joins vertebrae above and below).
Thoracic Vertebrae
The 12 Thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12) all articulate with the ribs. They increase in size from the first to the last. T11 and T12 are "floating ribs".
Thoracic Vertebrae Features:
1.) Body: Larger than cervical; heart shaped; bears two costal facets.
2.) Spinous process: Long; sharp; projects inferiorly.
3.) Vertebral foramen: Circular
4.) Transverse processes: Bear facets for ribs (except T11 and T12).
5.) Superior and inferior articulating processes:
Superior facets directed posteriorly.
Inferior facets directed anteriorly.
Lumbar Vertebrae L1-L5
Features:
1.) Body 2.) lamina 3.) pedicle
4.) spinous process
5.) transverse process
6.) vetebral process
Lumbar Vertebrae
The lumbar region of the vertebral column, commonly referred to as the small of the back, receives the most stress. Their bodies are massive and kidney shaped in a superior view.
Lumbar Vertebrae Features:
1.) Body: Massive; kidney shaped
2.) Spinous process: Short; blunt; rectangualr; projects directly posteriorly.
3.) Vertebral foramen: Triangular.
4.) Transverse processes: Thin and tapered.
5.) Superior and inferior articulating processes:
Superior facets directed posteromedically (or medially).
Inferior facets directed anterolaterally (or laterally).
Sacrum (5 fused vertebrae) S1-S5
Features:
1.) Anterior and posterior sacral foramina
2.) sacral promontory
Sacrum
The triangular sacrum, which shapes the posterior wall of the pelvis, is formed by five fused vertebrae (S1-S5). It articulates superiorly (via its superior articular processes) with L5 and inferiorly with the coccyx.
Sacrum Features:
1.) Anterior sacral formina: Lie at the lateral ends of the transverse ridges and transmit blood vessels and anterior rami for the sacral spinal nerves.
2.) Posterior sacral foramina: transmit the posterior rami of the sacral spinal nerves.
3.) Sacral promontory: The anterosuperior margin of the first sacral vertebra, bulges anteriorly into the pelvic cavity. The body's center of gravity lies about 1 cm posterior to this landmark.
Coccyx (4 fused vertebrae) C1-C4
Referred to as the "tailbone". It is a small triangular bone and consists of four (or in some cases 3 or 5) vertebrae fused together. The coccyx articulates superiorly with the sacrum.
Thoracic Cage
Forms a protective house for the heart and lungs. There are 25 bones making up the rib cage (12 pairs=24 of these are the ribs). posteriorly, each rib articulates with a thoracic vertebrae.
True ribs
Anteriorly, the first seven pairs of ribs (true ribs) articulate directly with the sternum by means of costal cartilages (hyaline cartilage).
False ribs
Of the inferior five pairs of ribs (false ribs), the upper three pairs connect to the sternum by means of the costal cartilage of the true ribs.
Floating ribs
The last two pairs (floating ribs) "float freely".They have no anterior attachments.
Sternum
Features:
1.) Manubrium; a. clavicular notch
b. jugular notch Located in the upper region.
2.) Body: Located in the middle region.
3.) Xiphoid process: Located in the lower region.