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82 Cards in this Set

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What are the functions of the endocrine system?


Regulation of body activities
Which of these has glands WITHOUT ducts?

Endocrine vs. Exocrine
Which of these releases a product through a duct onto a surface?

Endocrine vs. Exocrine
Which of these releases a hormone directly into the bloodstream?

Endocrine vs. Exocrine
What kind of gland is the sweat gland, endocrine or exocrine?
Exocrine because it releases sweat directly onto the skin
What kind of gland is the thyroid gland, endocrine or exocrine?
What kind of gland is the mucous gland, endocrine or exocrine?
What kind of gland is the salivary gland, endocrine or exocrine?
What kind of gland is the adrenal gland, endocrine or exocrine?
Why is the pancreas both an endocrine AND an exocrine gland?
Releases glucagon into the bloodstream (endocrine)

Releases juice in the liver (exocrine)
Which type of regulation is classified as having "frequency modulated signals"?
Nervous regulation
Which type of regulation is classified as having "amplitude modulated signals"?
Endocrine regulation
Why is nervous regulation more precise than endocrine regulation?
Nervous regulation has a direct target

Blood is not as direct as an axon
intercellular chemical signal
signal from cell to cell

i.e. hormones
What are the 3 types of intercellular signals?
autocrine signal
intercellular signal between the same kind of cell

i.e. platelet to platelet
paracrine signal
intercellular signal between two different kinds of cells

i.e. hormone to oocyte
Chemical substance secreted externally by some animals that influences the physiology or behavior of other animals

Not well detected or made very well in humans
Chemical messenger that generates a specific response in specific cells
Do all cells respond to hormones?
No. Only cells with specific receptors can respond to a specific hormone.
What are the 2 chemical classifications of hormones?

Which class of hormones includes steroids?
What kind of activation do proteins use?

What kind of activation do lipids use?
Proteins use 2nd messengers.

Lipids use direct gene activation.
What kind of receptors do proteins use?

What kind of receptors do lipids use?
Proteins use membrane bound receptors.

Lipids use intracellular receptors.
What do proteins derivatives stem from?
Amino acids and peptides
Why do protein hormones use 2nd messengers?
Because they are too big to get though the cell membrane
Identify the 3 groups of stimuli that control endocrine glands?
Neural stimuli
Hormonal stimuli
Humoral stimuli
neural stimuli
Control of endocrine glands via nervous system
hormonal stimuli
Control of endocrine glands via another endocrine gland
humoral stimuli
Control of endocrine glands via something in the blood
tropic hormone
hormone that targets another endocrine gland
neuroendocrine structure
structure w/ neurons that target an endocrine gland and release directly into the blood stream
Describe the structure of the pineal body.
Little mass of neurons
Describe the structure of the pituitary gland.
Two parts, anterior and posterior.

Anterior is darker.

Posterior is lighter and is actually NOT a gland; it is made of neurons.
What structure controls the pituitary gland?
Identify the function of the hypothalamus.
Continuously monitor blood for blood concentration, sodium levels, hormone levels, etc.
How is hypothalamus connected to the pituitary gland?
Via neurons and a capillary bed
How does the hypothalamus send orders to the pituitary gland?
Via tropic hormones
Is the hypothalamus an endocrine structure?
pitutary gigantism
overproduction of GH, esp. before puberty that causes excessive growth and too much height
Why does the overproduction of GH leave to too much height?
Epiphyseal plates have not closed and therefore the individual grows more
pituitary dwarfism
dwarfism caused by lack of GH production; individual is proportional head to toe, but abnormally small
What is the treatment for pituitary dwarfism?
GH (growth hormone)
Genetic disorder of bone growth in which an individual has short limbs
What element is required to make thyroid hormone?
What method does the thyroid hormone use to affect its target cells?
Direct gene activation (like a lipid), even though it is a protein
Identify the symptoms of an individual with hyperthyroidism.
Underweight, high metabolism, and high body temperature
Caused by hyposecretion of TH due to lack of iodine in the body;

Physically characterized by an abnormally enlarged thyroid gland
What is the treatment for a goiter?
Take iodine
What causes the enlarged thyroid gland associated with a goiter?
T3 + T4 + iodine = Thyroid hormone

If there is no iodine, T3+T4 will keep building up, but won't ever be complete until iodine is added.
How does calcitonin affect Ca++ levels?

How does parathyroid hormone (PTH) affect Ca++ levels?
Calcitonin lowers blood Ca++ concentration levels.

PTH increases blood Ca++ concentration levels.
How does calcitonin affect osteoclast activity?

How does PTH affect osteoclast activity?
Calcitonin decreases osteoclast activity.

PTH increases osteoclast activity to get Ca++ out of bones.
Identify the structures targeted by both calcitonin and PTH.
Bone and kidneys
Which type of diabetes is insulin-dependent?
Type I
What is the % of people with Diabetes Type I?

What is the % of poeple with Diabetes Type II?
Type I: 3% (insulin-dependent)

Type II: 97% (non-insulin dependent)
Identify the age at which Diabetes Type I and Type II begin.
Diabetes Type I: juvenile onset, commonly under 40 yrs old.

Diabetes Type II: adult onset, commonly over 40 yrs old
Identify 3 causes of Diabetes Type I.

Which of these is most rare?
Nonfunctional insulin

Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islets (thus, no insulin production)

Nonfunctional insulin receptors (thus, lots of insulin, but cells cannot process it); most rare
Identify the 2 causes of Diabetes Type II.
Adipose cells product chemicals that inhibit uptake of insulin.

High blood sugar over a long period of time.
Why is it possible for high blood sugar caused Diabetes Type II become Type I over time?
Pancreatic islet atrophy due to cells not responding to (ignoring) the massive amounts of insulin
A person with Diabetes Type I/II has lunch, but forgets their insulin.

What does the body use for energy? What does this result in?
The body will use lipids/proteins for ATP.

Ketoacidosis will result, but it is most common in Type I.
abnormally high blood sugar usually associated with diabetes
insulin shock
condition that occurs when the level of blood glucose drops sharply
What is the treatment for insulin shock?
Eat something sugary, i.e. candy, orange juice, etc.
What are the female secondary characteristics?
Less facial hair, breasts, wider pelvic girdle
What is the female primary characteristic?
Presence of ovaries (and other sex organs)
What are the male secondary characteristics?
More facial/body hair, larger muscles, wide shoulders, deep voice, Adam's apple

These traits are usually brought on during puberty.
What is the female primary characteristic?
Presence of testes (and other sex organs)
group of hormonelike substances that mediate a range of physiological functions

In the reproductive system, they further stimulate smooth muscle contractions in the uterus.
What stimulates the production of prostaglandins?
Estrogens and oxytocin
What does a high level of prostaglandins cause?
Painful menstruation
Describe the structure of a prostaglandin.
naturally occurring, long-chain (hydroxy) fatty acids
stalk that attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus of the brain

In general, any of various funnel-shaped parts of the body.
another name for pituitary gland
the anterior lobe of the pituitary body that is responsible for sending hormones
the posterior lobe of the pituitary body that is filled with neurons
anabolic steroids
Compounds that promote the growth or synthesis (anabolism) of tissue, especially muscle
diabetes insipidus
condition in which the kidneys are unable to conserve water; thus, the individual suffers from frequent urine in large volumes
diabetes mellitus
condition in which too much glucose is lost through the urine
Identify the gland that secretes melatonin.
Pineal body
When does melatonin output increase during the day?
When it starts getting dark
Identify which individual has the highest melatonin output and which has the lowest.

A. Child
B. Adult
Child - Highest melatonin output

Adult - Lowest melatonin output
Where is the thymus gland located?
Beneath the sternum